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Energy in Mining Use, conservation, and renewable

Energy in Mining Use, conservation, and renewable

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Energy in Mining Use, conservation, and renewable

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  1. Energy in MiningUse, conservation, and renewable MINE 292 – Lecture 24 John A Meech

  2. Outline • Energy Use and Conservation • Grinding • Ventilation • Fuel for Transportation • Heat • Sources of Power • Grid power (large-scale hydropower in B.C.) • Run-of-River hydropower • Geothermal • Solar and Wind • Diesel Gen-sets

  3. Total Energy and Production

  4. Energy Supply and Demand • Integrating renewable energy use into remote mining sites • Geothermal (both high and low) • Solar and/or wind • Energy storage and identifying times of peak power demand are key • BC-Hydro provides incentives to reduce consumption • Begins with proper measurement and data analysis • Accurate Data Measurement and Collection • Instrument maintenance is key • Real-time Visualization Tools (transparent to different viewpoints) • Automated Data Manipulation and Display in real-time • Identify patterns of wasted energy use (energy audit) • Examine time of day use and days of weeks use • With batch processes, schedule processes to minimize use • Examine pricing contract to find how power-shedding can add value • Look for ways to reduce water use (reduce %solids)

  5. Reducing energy use reduces costs • Energy for Trucking • Road maintenance (grading, watering, and chemical sprays) • Trolley-assist • Hybrid-electric • Autonomous vehicles • Truck-less Systems • Move towards moveable conveyors • Substitute electricity for fuel (cost/benefit analysis) • Loss of flexibility must be accounted for • Examine efficiency of high-energy consumers • Air-conditioning (maintenance of units / establish needs) • Grinding mills (reduce steel in the mill that does no grinding) • Optimize ventilation requirements (reduce unnecessary air without compromising on safety)

  6. Reducing energy use reduces costs • Grinding Energy (50 to 80% of all energy use) • Maintain throughput • Design for energy efficiency • Design for excess pebble crushing capacity • Open-up mill grates to allow critical size material to exit • Remove metal shards from the stream • Heat Requirements • Space heating needs • Heat for Drying concentrate • Question: can drying tailings be justified?

  7. Energy Supply at remote sites • Diesel Gen-sets • Run-of-River Hydropower • Use of Grid Power But what about other resources? Let's examine Geothermal Energy Systems

  8. Geothermal Energy Acknowledgement – Dr. Mory Ghomshei – NastaranArianpoo – Sarah Kimball

  9. Components of a Geothermal Resource(both low and high temperature) • heat • water (fluid) • permeability

  10. Residential/commercial heating and cooling Heat Supply to Industry grid electricity heat Chilled water Cooling water Heat Pumps Direct Use Cogeneration Power& Heat Low T (10-20 C) low risk 30 m 200 m 500 m 1,000 m Re-injection Medium T (20-50 C) (low risk) Geothermal Resource Moderately-high T (100-150 C) for binary cycle (low to medium risk) High T for flash steam (med risk) (180-300 C) Geothermal Resources and Applications(Vertical Distribution)

  11. Geothermal Heat Pumps Operational considerations • Proven Technology • New / retrofit applications • High front end cost • Low operation & maintenance costs

  12. open loop system Heat Pump Cycles Compressible Fluid – Ammonia, Freon, Butane, etc.

  13. Commercial Air Conditioner

  14. Residential Air Conditioner

  15. Ground Source Heat Pump

  16. Geothermal Heat Pumps • over 30,000 Geothermal Heat Pumps in residences in Canada • 3,000+ units in industrial and commercial buildings

  17. How to Tap into the Resource Closed Loop - Horizontal - Vertical Open Loop - with re-injection - without re-injection

  18. Geothermal Heat Pumps • Large potential in Canada (energy use reduced by 20 to 50% • Capital cost $ 800 - 2,000 /kWt • Operating cost of energy : $0.02-0.04 /kWh

  19. Residential geothermal heat pump installation

  20. Anatomy of a successful GHP project Lynn Valley Care Centre North Vancouver, B.C. Residents: 180 Energy demand 250 kW (mostly thermal) Energy Cost: $120,000/year

  21. North Shore Care Centre GHP Project 1st GHP well Location of the Property 1070 Lynn Valley Rd. North Vancouver Site Plan, showing different portions of facility and location of Phase 1 and Phase 2 Developments Hospital Portion Location of Phase 2 Development New Administrative Section Present Parking Lot and Location of the Phase 1 Development 2nd GHP well

  22. Geothermal drilling at Lynn Valley Care Centre Rotary Drilling - 90 ft well 12 feet of screen in water bearing sand

  23. Geothermal Well No. 1: Lynn Valley Care Centre 28 GPM continuous production @ 11 °C = 25 kWt net capacity

  24. Lynn Valley Care Centre Geothermal Project Cost analysis for two production wells Continuous production (from two wells) 80 GPM Resource temperature 11 oC Return from heat pump 6 oC Supply water temperature 45 oC Coefficient of performance (COP) 4.2 Total heat capacity of the well 105 kWt Electric power requirement for heat pump 25 kWe Electric power requirement for the pumps 1 kWe Total electric power requirement 26 kWe Net thermal power generated 79 kWt Capacity factor 75 % Price of electricity 5.5 ¢/kWh Net saving $28,550/year Total capital cost $90,000 Payback Period 3.15 years

  25. Integrated Geothermal System Design of the Lynn Valley Care Centre 11°C NO 11°C 38GPM 20GPM W2 W3 45°C Hot water supply 5°C 5°C NO NO cooler room freezer room electrical room NC HP1 12 ton HP2 12 ton HP3 6 ton 3°C NC 5°C 15°C NC NO NO NC NO V2 filter NC R1 NC R2 GEOTHERMAL SURGE TANK 50 m3 RAIN WATER TANK 100 m3 NO V1 NC 30GPM NC NC pumped for flushing and other possible uses City water to storm sewer rain water W1

  26. District Heating Geothermal Systems

  27. A Mine is a Geothermal Heat Exchanger • Heat: • Temperature gradient (heat flux from rock mass) • 20 - 40 °C/km • 50 to 75 mW/m2 vertical heat flux • T > 30°C at levels of 1,000-2,000 m below surface • Presence of radioactive elements (U, Th, K) in rock mass • Chemical and mineralogical reactions such as ARD • Solar energy captured by near-surface ground: geo-solar • Water: • Flooded mine can have up to 10,000,000 m3water as a heat sink • Water flows of 6,000 – 18,000 m3/day depending on climate

  28. A Mine is a Geothermal Heat Exchanger • Permeability: • Mine workings allow water to move laterally and vertically 75 km of tunnels and open stopes

  29. Canadian Success Story (Springhill, N.S.) Energy source: water from an abandoned coalmine Application: Heating/cooling an industrial park (14,000 m2) Heat source: normal heat flux from rock with minor contribution from burning coal Resource temperature = 18-20 °C Winter Outlet temperature = 11 °C (heating) Summer Outlet temperature = 27 °C (cooling) Groundwater temperature = 7-8 °C Over 60% more efficient than conventional HVAC Heat extracted = 890 GJ/ yr Heat returned = 1550 GJ/ yr Plant uses 11 heat pumps Highest heating capacity = 70 kW http://www.town.springhill.ns.ca http://www.town.springhill.ns.ca/index.php?option=com_ docman&task=doc_download&gid=162&Itemid=114 http://www.geothermal-energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/WGC/1995/1-jessop.pdf

  30. Schematic Diagram of the Britannia Beach Geothermal Heat Recovery System Power Supply (0.24 - 1.0 MWe) 600 m3/h District heating supply (1.2 – 5.0 MWt) From 4100 Level of Britannia Mine 180 m3/h 600 m3/h 15 oC 13.5 oC 50 oC Heat Pump(s) (Centralized or Distributed) Acid Resistant Heat Exchanger 6 oC 20 oC 25 oC 7.5 oC 10 oC Waste water To Water Treatment Plant Makeup water

  31. Quantity of Available Heat Resource Chill Average Power Temperature TemperatureFlowrate Available (°C) (°C) m3/h (MW) 15 6 600 6.3 14 5 600 6.3 13 5 600 5.6 12 4 600 5.6 11 4 600 4.9 10 3 600 4.9 Average Current Demand = 0.2 - 0.6 MW Average Future Demand = 1.8 - 3.8 MW

  32. Britannia Beach Geothermal Project: Phased-in Development Phase 1: Demonstration Project – existing commercial Phase 2: Existing community (107 homes) Phase 3: New North Britannia development (110 homes) Phase 4: New South Britannia development (400 homes) Capital Cost Estimate = $8,000,000 Estimated Payback = 5.5 years

  33. Direct Use Applications - 2005 * 306 0.33 28,488 0.31

  34. Direct Use – Installed Capacity Other Heat Pumps Balneology Snow Melting Industrial Uses Agriculture Space Heating Aquaculture Greenhouse Heating

  35. Advantages of Geothermal Power • Extremely low greenhouse gas emissions • Conservation of non-renewable fossil fuels • Elimination of fuel transportation costs • Extremely reliable energy source – 24-7-365 • Very small land requirements for power plant • Tax incentives & reduced regulations (U.S./E.U.) • Equipment is long-lasting (>25 years)

  36. Disadvantages of Geothermal Power • Power station siting risks (active tectonic areas) • If steam/hot-water production is not well-managed, reservoir may run out of fluid within a decade • Hazardous gases (H2S/SO2) associated with the resource • Physical effects of fluid withdrawal on neighbours • Thermal effects and chemical pollution on biota • Noise from drilling and production facilities • With EGS projects, process can cause earthquakes (~3.0 on the Richter scale)

  37. Comparison of CO2 Emissions

  38. Comparison of Capacity Factors

  39. Worldwide Installed Capacity

  40. Different Types of GES

  41. Larderello, Italy First GES electrical generating station – 1908 Dry Steam Plant Temp > 300 °C

  42. The Geysers, U.S. A complex of 22 geothermal power plants Largest dry steam resource in the world 350 wells, located 72 miles north of San Francisco 1517 MW of active installed capacity Capacity Factor = 63 % (955 MW) Calpine Corporation operates and owns 19 plants Northern California Power Agency and City of Santa Rosa own two other plants U.S. Renewables Group reopened Bottle Rock Plant Ram Power Corp, formerly Western Geopower, set to begin production at 35 MW

  43. The Geysers Generating Station

  44. Calpine Visitors Center

  45. G.E.S. at 3 km depth

  46. G.E.S. at 6 km depth

  47. Types of Installed Generating Plants

  48. Dry Steam Power Plant Resource Temperatures over 275 °C (After DOE, 2009; Idaho National Laboratory, 2009)