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Species diversity

Species diversity

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Species diversity

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  1. Species diversity • Ecological communities differ in species number and composition • tropics > temperate • remote islands < large islands • continents > islands

  2. Species diversity • Comprised of • species richness: number of species present • heterogeneity of species • equitability or evenness • relative abundance of each species present in the community

  3. Measurement of species diversity • Species richness • number of species present in community • first and oldest concept of diversity • simplest estimate of diversity • only residents are counted • treats common and rare species with the same weight

  4. Measurement of species diversity • Heterogeneity of species • uses relative abundance to give more weight to common species • possibilities in a 2-species community: Comm 1Comm 2 Species A 99 50 Species B 150 100 100

  5. Measurement of species diversity • Shannon-Wiener diversity function H' = - (pi) [ln(pi)]  H’ = Shannon-Wiener index of species diversity s = number of species in community pi = proportion of total abundance represented by ith species s

  6. Shannon-Wiener diversity index

  7. Shannon-Wiener diversity index

  8. Measurement of species diversity • Shannon-Wiener diversity function • values range from near zero to ??? • increased values indicate increased diversity • index has no units; value only as comparison between at least two communities

  9. Species diversity • What increases species diversity (H’)? • increasing the number of species in the community (s) • increasing the equitability of the abundances of each species in the community

  10. Evenness • Measurement of equitability among species in the community • Pielou evenness E = H’ / Hmax E = Pielou evenness H’ = calculated Shannon-Wiener diversity Hmax = ln(s) [species diversity under maximum equitability conditions] • values range from near zero to 1

  11. Diversity and evenness

  12. Practice problem

  13. Practice problem

  14. Practice problem

  15. Species diversity indices

  16. Commonness, rarity and dominance • Preston’s log normal distribution model • a few common species with high abundances • many rare species with low abundances

  17. Commonness, rarity and dominance • MacArthur’s broken stick model • random breaks in a stick  log normal distribution of pieces • results in a few large pieces and many small pieces

  18. Commonness, rarity and dominance • Community organization • model 1 • a few very common species • many rare species • model 2 • a few very common and very rare species • most species of intermediate abundance

  19. Fig. 22.1, p. 435: Relative abundance of Lepidoptera captured in a light trap in England (6814 individuals representing 197 species).

  20. Biogeography • Observations of relationships between • area and number of species • distance from source • Island biogeography • E.O. Wilson and Robert MacArthur

  21. Island biogeography • Island communities: well-defined, captive • Variables • size • degree of remoteness • elevation • Simple community structure • Increase in area  increase in number of species

  22. Island biogeography • Habitats considered as “insular” because they are isolated from other communities • caves • mountain tops • some peninsulas • wildlife or game preserves

  23. Fig. 24.14, p. 502: Number of land-plant species on the Galapagos Islands in relation to the area of the island.

  24. Fig. 24.15, p. 503: Species-area curve for amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies.

  25. Island biogeography • Relationship between remoteness and number of species • increase distance from mainland  decrease number of species • number of species present is dependent on immigration from mainland • rate is a function of the number of species already present on the island • number of species present = balance between immigration and extinction

  26. Fig. 24.17, p. 504: Equilibrium model for biota on a single island.

  27. Fig. 24.18, p. 504: Equilibrium model for biota on several islands of different size and remoteness.

  28. Island biogeography • Small species are found on more islands than are large species • Number of herbivore species > carnivores • Number of generalist herbivore species > specialist herbivores

  29. Island biogeography • Species:area relationship • log : log relationship • 10-fold decrease in area  50% decrease in number of species

  30. Island biogeography • Species:area relationship

  31. Latitudinal diversity gradients • Abundance and diversity patterns • latitude • elevation • mountainsides • peninsulas

  32. Fig. 22.5, p. 438: Number of tree species in Canada and U.S.

  33. Fig. 22.6, p. 439: Number of species of land birds in North and Central America.

  34. Fig. 22.7, p. 440: Number of species of calanoid copepods in top 50 m of transect from tropical Pacific to Arctic Ocean.

  35. Fig. 22.9, p. 440: Number of species of mammals in continental North America.

  36. Fig. 22.10, p. 440: Species richness of mammals in North and South America in relation to latitude.

  37. Tree species Malaysia (4 acres): 227 Michigan (4 acres): <15 Ant species Brazil: 222 Trinidad: 134 Cuba: 101 Utah: 63 Alaska: 7 Latitudinal diversity gradients

  38. Snake species Mexico: 293 U.S.: 126 Canada: 22 Fish species Amazon R: >1000 Central American rivers: 450 Great Lakes: 172 Latitudinal diversity gradients

  39. Latitudinal gradient hypotheses • History (time) • Spatial heterogeneity • Competition • Predation • Productivity • Environmental stability (climate) • Disturbance

  40. Latitudinal gradient hypotheses • History (time) hypothesis • tropical habitats older, more stable • support for • geological past of temperate less constant than tropics due to glaciation • all communities diversify with time • argument against • as glaciers moved in, species moved south to escape • history hypothesis can not be tested

  41. Latitudinal gradient hypotheses • Spatial heterogeneity hypothesis • higher diversity in tropics due to increase in number of potential habitats •  environmental complexity moving away from equator • macro level: e.g., topographic features • micro level: e.g., particle size, vegetation complexity

  42. Latitudinal gradient hypotheses • Spatial heterogeneity hypothesis • Hutchinson’s n-dimensional niche   specialization • types of diversity defined by spatial heterogeneity • within-habitats ( diversity) • between-habitats ( diversity)

  43. Diversity defined by spatial heterogeneity

  44. Latitudinal gradient hypotheses • Competition hypothesis • less competition in temperate and polar environments compared to tropics because these populations are more regulated by extreme environmental conditions than by biological factors • populations maintained <K due to weather, etc. and major sources of mortality are abiotic • since population sizes small, decreased competition for resources

  45. Latitudinal gradient hypotheses • Competition hypothesis • no weather extremes in tropics,  populations can increase to densities at which competition for resources is necessary • promotes species diversity through specialization  resource partitioning •  and  diversity higher in tropics due to organisms being more specialized to habitats

  46. Fig. 22.14a, p. 447. Niche breadth versus niche overlap determined by competition within the community.

  47. Latitudinal gradient hypotheses • Predation hypothesis • increased species diversity in tropics is function of increased number of predators that regulate the prey species at low densities • decreases competition among prey species • allows coexistence of prey species and potential for new additions

  48. Fig. 22.16, p. 449. Janzen-Connell model for increased diversity of tropical rainforest trees: seed predation versus distance of seed from tree versus seed survival.

  49. Latitudinal gradient hypotheses • Predation hypothesis • there is more selective pressure on prey evolving avoidance mechanisms than in becoming better competitors • cropping principle • remove predators and prey start competing • predation increases diversity by reducing intraspecific competition among prey species

  50. Community anchored by keystone starfish Heliaster in northern Gulf of California.