Intercultural Development Considering the Growth of Self and Students Chapter 5
Developmental Models of Ethnic and Racial Identity • What does it mean to change over time, to see and interact in the world from a new and different perspective, often as a result of direct experience and maturation? • Developmental models provide a schema within which to consider such changes.
Developmental Models in the Study of Culture • These models have recently begun to emerge, particularly with respect to: • Ethnic Identity: generally defined on the basis of cultural criteria (customs, language) • Racial Identity: generally defined on the basis of physical criteria (skin color, facial features) • One may identify oneself with one or the other, or both.
Models of Ethnic and Racial Identity • Cross/Spring five-stage model: • Pre-encounter: internalization of negative stereotypes by mainstream society through television, radio, newspapers, and conversations • Encounter: confrontation by an incident that forces questioning the negative stereotypes that have become a part of their ethnic identity (e.g., racial profiling) • Immersion/Emersion: assumption of a new ethnic identity, loss of self-hatred to rediscover their traditional culture cont.
Immersion: total involvement in the ethnic culture—active in discussion, organizations; highly ethnocentric • Internalization: recognition of and comfort in living in two worlds; becoming bicultural, or multicultural; can be both accepting and critical of mainstream culture
James Banks’s Model of Ethnic Development • Ethnic psychological captivity • Ethnic encapsulation • Ethnic identify clarification • Biethnicity: individuals have a strong sense of their own ethnic identity as well as a healthy understanding and respect for others cont. Similar to Cross’s model
Multiethnicity: individual has a healthy understanding and appreciation of many groups; the ideal for an ethnically pluralistic society like the United States • Globalism and Global Competency: individuals reflect positive ethnic, national, and global identities while demonstrating the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and abilities to function effectively in ethnic cultures from a variety of contexts
Intercultural Competence • Interculturally competent people have three things in common: • They are able to manage the psychological stress that accompanies most intercultural interactions. • They are able to communicate effectively across cultures—verbally and nonverbally. • They are able to develop and maintain new and essential interpersonal relationships.
Intercultural Skills • The ability to respond to others in a nonjudgmental manner • Attempt to propose more than one cultural interpretation for behavior • The ability to mediate conflicts and solve problems in culturally appropriate and effective ways • The ability to motivate others in the context of cultural values • The ability to adapt to and value cultural differences
Developing Intercultural Sensitivity • Bennett’s developmental model of intercultural sensitivity (DMIS) provides a framework for understanding individual development and awareness along a continuum from highly ethnocentric to highly ethnorelative. • In general, an increase in cultural awareness is accompanied by improved cognitive sophistication.
Stages in Bennett’s Model • Ethnocentric side • Denial: inability to see cultural differences • Defense: recognition of cultural differences, but negative evaluations of most • Minimization: acceptance of superficial cultural differences, but belief that all human beings are essentially the same • Ethnorelative side • Acceptance: ability to recognize and appreciate cultural differences on their own terms • Adaptation: sees cultural categories as more flexible; becomes more competent in ability to communicate • Integration: (rarely achieved) moves easily among multiple perspectives
Something to Think About “One of the higher callings for young people in the coming century will be working to increase intercultural understanding. Such people will be the missionaries of the age, spreading light among groups. . .by giving them a modern vision of the new global community.” —Carl Coon