WELCOME • 209th RSG • Applied Food Sanitation • Refresher Training • FY 2010
FOOD SERVICE SANITATION • 16 HOUR COURSE • 70% FOR REFRESHER CERTIFICATION • 50 QUESTION MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST
Course Content Sanitation Terms Hazards To Safe Food Factors That Lead To Food-Borne Illness Food Protection Cleaning And Sanitizing Insects and Rodents
Content (Continued) Sanitation Inspections Field Food Service Sanitation Food Service Safety Dining Facility Fire Prevention HACCP
SANITATION Why Study Sanitation?
WHY STUDY SANITATION? Modern processing and excessive food handling increase the opportunity for contamination Sanitation is the most cost effective means available to the military for preventing disease and improving the Soldiers well being The number one reason – Protect the health of the soldier.
Good personal hygiene is a critical measure against food borne illnesses Why Study Sanitation? Protect food service workers – the food service manager is obligated to protect customers and workers Legal Obligation : Federal, state and local gov. Agencies set regulations to protect the public The Army has a similar system called the TB Med 530
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1998 Giardia Shigellosis Campylobac Salmonella 1999 2-Yr Total Impact of Foodborne DiseasesPerception vs. Reality 76 million contract foodborne illnesses 5,000 fatalities each year VOMITING FEVER Active Army Reported Major Food & Waterborne Illness (1 Jan 98-31 Dec 99) Army Medical Surveillance Activity ABDOMINAL PAIN DIARRHEA
DEFINITIONS CLEAN:Free of visible soil. SANITIZE:To reduce the number of micro- organisms to a safe level. STERILIZE:To make free of microorganisms.
ADULTERATED-Containing an unhealthy substance; bearing or containing poison; consisting in whole or in part of any filthy substance; product of a diseased animal. SPOILED-Decrease in edible quality due to an off-flavor or an off-odor, usually through natural effects of bacterial action, enzyme or aging.
PERISHABLE FOOD • Any Food That Will Rapidly Spoil
POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOOD(PHF) Any food capable of supporting the rapid growth of bacteria
TEMPERATURE DANGER ZONE (TDZ) • Temperature range at which bacteria multiply rapidly from 40 to 140 degrees F. • Safe temperature range. • Below 40 degrees F or above 140 degrees F.
FOODBORNE ILLNESS- Disease transmitted to humans by eating contaminated food. OUTBREAK- Development of a food-borne illness by two or more people that ate a common food .
FOODBORNE INFECTION-Living microorganisms transmitted by food; grow and cause disease in humans. FOODBORNE INTOXICATION-Microorganisms produce toxins in food which people then eat.
CARRIER An individual harboring and infectious agent in his or her body, exhibiting no symptoms but are able to transmit to others.
CROSS-CONTAMINATION CROSS-CONTAMINATION- Transfer of harmful microorganisms from one food to another by means of foods or non-food such as utensils, equipment or human contact. WET-STORAGE- Storage or display of food packages in water or in direct contact with Un-drained ice.
BACTERIA-Single celled plants invisible to the naked eye. BINARY FISSION -Reproductive method of bacterial cells divide into two approximately equal parts. VIRUS - Extremely small micro-organism: cannot grow in food but may transmitted by food.
FOOD CONTACT SURFACE -Any surface of equipment or utensils with which food normally comes in contact or from which food may drain, drip, or splash back on to surfaces normally in contact with food. PRODUCT TEMPERATURE -How hot or cold a food item is: This must be measured with a thermometer inserted into the food.
WHOLESOME In sound condition, clean, free, from adulteration and otherwise suitable and safe for human consumption.
HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points A Systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards.
Hazards to Safe Food Hazards to Safe Food
HAZARDS TO SAFE FOOD ALLERGENS BIOLOGICAL AGENTS CHEMICAL AGENTS PHYSICAL AGENTS
HAZARDS TO SAFE FOOD FOOD ADDITIVES ARE NOW CLASSIFIED AS ALLERGENS NOT CHEMICAL HAZARDS. USED AS PRESERVATIVES AND FLAVOR ENHANCERS. MOMOSODIUM GLUTAMATE (MSG), NITRITES AND NITRATES SULFATES AND SULFITES.
CHEMICAL HAZARDS PESTICIDE MISUSE IS ONE WAY TO CONTAMIMINATE FOOD. APPLYING PESTICIDES WITH FOOD EXPOSED. PESTICIDES USED ON THEM WHEN THEY ARE GROWING. ACIDIC LIQUIDS IN GALVANIZED CONTAINERS HEAVY METALS: *COOKING ON REFRIGERATOR SHELFS *LEAD-BASED PRODUCTS (CRYSTAL, FLATWARE)
CHEMICAL HAZARDS (cont) PESTICIDE MISUSE IS ONE WAY TO CONTAMIMINATE FOOD. APPLYING BUG SPRAY WITH FOOD EXPOSED. PESTICIDES USED ON THEM IN THE GROWING PHASE RESIDUES FROM DETERGENTS, CLEANING SOULATIONS, OR CONCENTRATED SANITIZERS MUST BE APPROVED BY THE EPA FOR FOOD SERVICE
PHYSICAL HAZARDS ANY UNINTENDED OBJECTS IN FOOD. PIECES OF WOOD, METAL, GLASS ARE PHYSICAL HAZARDS. WOOD FROM TOOTHPICKS, METAL FROM DULL CAN OPENERS AND GLASS FROM USING WRONG TYPE OF ICE SCOOP. GLASS FROM UNPROTECTED LIGHT BULBS THAT SHATTER. NATURAL PHYSICAL HAZARDS SUCH AS FISH BONES, CHICKEN BONES. PARTICULATES (hair, fingernails and sputum) physical in nature, but are biological hazard
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS BACTERIA VIRUSES MOLDS YEASTS PARASITES
BACTERIA-Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms CAUSE: Food-Borne Infection Food-Borne Intoxication Food Spoilage BACTERIA CAN GROW VERY QUICKLY
BACTERIA CAN GROW QUICKLY WITH: FOOD (High in protein) TIME (4 Hours) RIGHT TEMPERATURE MOISTURE
BACTERIA Bacteria reproduces by a process called binary fission. One bacterium can divide in two every 15-20 minutes. Bacteria take several hours to totally adjust to a new environment.
FAT TOM Acronym that describes bacterial growth. F- Food high in protein. A-Acidity pH between 4.6 and 9 on the pH scale. T- Time (4 hours) T- Temperature 40 deg F to 140 deg F range where the bacteria grow rapidly. O- Oxygen three types of bacteria aerobic (air), anaerobic (no air) and facultative, (with or without air.) M- Moisture bacteria grow well on moist surfaces.
Time START 15 min 30 min 45 min 1 hour 2 hours 3 hours 4 hours NUMBER OF BACTERIA 1 2 4 8 16 256 4096 65,536 GROWTH OF BACTERIA
BACTERIAL GROWTH PHASES NUMBER OF BACTERIA STATIONARYPHASE 4 hours DECLINE PHASE LOGPHASE LAG PHASE TIME
BACTERIA SPORES A spore is a protein-enriched protective shell that bacteria form when in the TDZ to long. This helps protect them from heat and freezing.
VIRUSES • Viruses are the smallest of all living forms. • They have no nucleus or cell wall. • A virus reproduces by interfacing with the cells in the host. • Must have a host to reproduce.
VIRUSES-(Continued) Viruses do not require potentially hazardous foods to survive. They generally require fewer organisms to make you sick, therefore it is easy to transmit viruses through water. Viruses can cause many diseases that may include vomiting, diarrhea, and infectious hepatitis.
FUNGUS FAMILY MOLDS YEASTS
MOLDS Reproduces by spores. Cause spoilage in a wide range of foods. Can grow in a wide temperature and humidity range such as on cooler walls. Some molds produce toxins.
YEASTS Generally beneficial. Help make bread, wine, and beer. Yeasts do not cause food-borne disease. They do cause food spoilage. Yeasts can grow in a wide range of environments, even high acid foods like fruit juice.
PARASITES Require a living host for at least one stage of their life cycle Can cause a variety of symptoms Types of Parasites: (a) Single celled-Protozoa’s (b) Multi-celled – trichina worms, roundworm, tapeworm, flukes
WHAT CAUSES FOODBORNE DISEASE Failure to properly cool food. Failure to thoroughly cook or heat food. Infected employees who practice poor personal hygiene. (1999 #1 offense) Foods prepared a day or more before they are served.
WHAT CAUSES FOODBORNE DISEASE (Continued) Raw contaminated ingredients incorporated into foods that receive no further cooking. Foods allowed to remain at bacteria incubating temperatures. Failure to reheat cooked foods to temperatures that kill vegetative bacteria. Cross contamination of cooked foods with raw items either by workers who mishandle foods through improperly cleaned equipment.
Foodborne Disease Threat- Bacteria Majority of the foodborne illness reported have been traced back to foods fixed too far ahead, poor refrigeration, and disregard of time and temp. Bacterial foodborne illness can be broken down into two categories: Infection and Intoxication.
FOODBORNE DISEASE THREAT con’t.. INFECTION: Ingestion of disease producing bacteria. Causes flu-like symptoms: fever, headache, nausea… Laboratory examination of vomit or suspected food will give type of organism. TYPES OF INFECTION: Salmonella, poultry, poultry salads, eggs/egg products like custards and sauces. Sliced melons and raw sprouts. Forms no spore, is facultative.
FOODBORNE DISEASE THREAT - INFECTION CONT. Listeria: associated with unpasteurized milk,cheese ice cream and RTE foods. Forms no spores and is facultative. Camphylobacter: associated with unpasteurized milk, dairy products, raw poultry, non-chlorinated and fecal contaminated water. Forms no spores.
FOODBORNE DISEASE BY INTOXICATION Foodbornedisease by intoxication is a serious problem! Some poisons (toxins) are very difficult to destroy. The toxins produced by STAPH. ORGANISM will withstand boiling temperatures for long periods of time. The toxin produced by the BOTULISM ORGANISM, is deadlier and may be destroyed by boiling. Staphylococcal- associated with reheated foods and other meats. The causative agent, present in boils, cuts, and from coughing and sneezing. No spores, is facultative.