Planning with the Common Core State Standards Allen Parish English / Language ArtsWednesday, August 22 and Thursday, August 23, 2012
Slides and templates available at: http://www.21stcenturyschoolteacher.com/presentations.html
Our Understandings • Transferof content and literacy skills is the ultimate goal. • (Transfer is defined as adaptation and application of skills to new situations or contexts.) • In order to transfer, students need time and guidance to make meaning of the methodologies, structures, and relevance of the reading and writing process. • Unpacking the CCSS can help us identify skills and knowledge that students must acquire in order to make meaning and transfer.
Reviewing A-M-T Number game
M T A • Example: • Read stories, identify plot elements, discuss effective examples, practice writing an exposition, etc. • Example: • Write our own short stories . . . • Example: Teach elements of plot (exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, etc.)
Designing and Teaching for Transfer Establish and keep highlighting clear transfer goals. Have learners practice judgment in using a few different skills, not just plugging in one skill on command. Provide students with feedback on their self-cueing, knowledge retrieval, self-assessment, and self-adjustment as they move toward transfer. Change the set-up so that students realize that use of prior learning comes in many guises. Have students regularly generalize from specific instances and cases. Require students to constantly reword, rephrase, and represent what they learn.
Common Core = Six Shifts in Literacy Balancing Informational and Literary Text Building Knowledge in the Disciplines Staircase of Complexity Text-Based Answers Writing From Sources Academic Vocabulary
Our Focus: WRITING: Shifts 4 and 5: Focus on command of evidence from texts: writing prompts and rubrics READING: Shifts 1 and 2: Non-fiction Texts and Authentic Texts OUTCOME: Unpacked Reading/Writing Standards for your classroom, review of transitional curriculum, and application of day one work to revision of DCAs
Strongest Messages: Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction Reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational Regular practice with complex text and its academic language
"The ELA transitional tests will have a new type of writing prompt that focuses on a key instructional shift—writing in response to reading. Instead of responding to a “stand alone” writing prompt, students will read one or two passages and use the information from the text to support his or her response." --LDOE Website
Reading / Writing Connection: Silent Spring CCSS RI.1-3 (Key Ideas and Details) and RI.4-6 (Craft and Structure) (pp. 39-40 ) AND CCR W.2: Write informative / explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately, through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. (p. 41 )
Digging Deeper to Understand Implications of Standards Unpacking CCSS Standards
Overview of CCR and CCSS • Begin with College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards • All CCSS arranged by grade bands 6, 7, 8, 9-10, 11-12 • 20 CCSS in Reading are broken down—10 Literary (RL)—and 10 Informational text (RI)—page 35 (RL-36, RI-39) • 10 CCSS in Writing (W) page 41 • Six CCSS in Speaking and Listening – (SL) page 48 • Six CCSS in Language – (L) page 51
Breaking down the standards: Red=verb=Skill or Understanding Blue=Noun=Knowledge Green=qualifier=Criteria for performance CCR 2. Writeinformative/explanatory texts to examine and conveycomplexideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
Example - Common Core - Writing W.1-Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Underline the nouns, circle the verbs, and place parenthesis around modifiers.
Example - Common Core - Writing W.1-Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of (substantive) topics or texts, using (valid) reasoning and (relevant) and (sufficient) evidence. Underline the nouns, circle the verbs, and place parenthesis around modifiers.
1. Initiate and participateeffectively in a range of collaborativediscussions (one- on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearlyand persuasively.
Speaking and Listening—Gr. 11-12 Speaking and Listening -- SL.11-12.1 (continued) a. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well- reasoned exchange of ideas. (A) b. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision- making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed. (A) c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives. (M) d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task. (T)
Unpacking the Standards:Electronic Template available on website Kids initiate and participate in an independent conversation (write own questions, own discussion leaders, own progression / monitoring) incorporating original text(s), essential questions of the unit to arrive at new perspectives based on synthesis of multiple viewpoints. (Socratic seminar--debate—panel—round table—fire lane) Must end in some kind of reflection that encapsulates new learning. Practice generating levels of questions with a text. Practice posing questions and responding to different opinions. Exhibit criteria for successful conversation--test and extend original thinking, allow everyone a voice, assume value in alternate opinions. Debrief and self/peer assess—this may have elements of meaning making and transfer Identify appropriate discussion / listening skills Understand roles in discussion How to generate questions—Costa’s Levels or another method Preparation skills—Reading, research, etc. Teacher Modeling –conversation and questioning
Collaborate: • Unpack two or three desired standard(s) for Acquisition, Meaning Making, and Transfer. • A-What kinds of new direct instruction will this standard demand? What knowledge and skills must be acquired? • M-What understandings from this standard will take time and intentional planning to explore and uncover? What skills are new to this grade band? (Examine grade level below / above) • T-What independent transfer is called for by the standard?
Writing • Expect students to compose arguments andopinionsand informative / explanatory pieces • Focus on the use of reason and cite evidence to substantiate an argument or claim • Emphasize ability to conduct research – short projects and sustained inquiry • Require students to incorporate technology as they create, refine, and collaborate on writing • Include student writing samples that illustrate the criteria required to meet the standards • (See Appendix C for writing samples CCSSO EdSteps Continuum)
Shift 4 & 5: Focus on Writing Instruction aligned to CCSS
Shift 4 & 5: Implications for Instruction Increased writing from sources Argument and informational 70%
Transfer Goal: CCR W10 CCR 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. • CCSS for English/Language Arts & Literacy, p. 35
Writing: Of freshmen entering Harvard: “Bad spelling, incorrectness as well as inelegance of expression in writing, [and] ignorance of the simplest rules of punctuation.” • Harvard President Charles Eliot, 1871
Writing through time: • “Children don’t get many opportunities to write. In [a] recent study in grades one, three, and five, only 15% of the schools day was spent in any kind of writing activity.” • R.C. Anderson, Becoming a Nation of Readers: The Report of the Commission on Reading, 1985
Writing through time: • “Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. • CCSS for English/Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects, p. 42
Source: Balog, David, Ed. The Dana Source Book of Brain Science: Resources for Teachers and Students 4th edition. Dana Press, c2006.
Source: Balog, David, Ed. The Dana Source Book of Brain Science: Resources for Teachers and Students 4th edition. Dana Press, c2006.
Challenge: Writing to Understand: "As long as the reason of man continues fallible, and he is at liberty to exercise it, different opinions will be formed. As long as the connection subsists between his reason and his self-love, his opinions and his passions will have a reciprocal influence on each other; and the former will be objects to which the latter will attach themselves. The diversity in the faculties of men, from which the rights of property originate, is not less an insuperable obstacle to a uniformity of interests. The protection of these faculties is the first object of government. From the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property, the possession of different degrees and kinds of property immediately results; and from the influence of these on the sentiments and views of the respective proprietors, ensues a division of the society into different interests and parties." --James Madison’s The Federalist Papers
Teaching to the writing standards: Narrative Writing
CCR #3, p. 41 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
Example Writing Task: Narrative Skills: Brainstorming, listing, using model text
Exercise: I remember . . . Take a few minutes and list as many events as you can remember from your childhood. Try for 5 – 10.
Respond: From Childhood Images • Choose ONE memory. Tell a story: “One day, back in Lincoln, Nebraska . . .” • Don’t edit too much • Get down as much detail as you remember • Don’t try for perfect or polished • Don’t worry about length • (we will take just a few minutes for this draft)
Reflect and respond In teams of two, share your experience out loud. How did the details given (or the subject matter, or the language, or the sentence length, or the organization) influence your response as listener? Could you “see” the event?
Let’s Write • Think back to your “I remember” list. • Use this last memory OR choose another memory/image and jot down 5 things that you didn’t realize you loved until your returned to this memory—five things that come directly from this memory. • In other words, finish the sentence, “I never knew I loved ________.” (I never knew I loved awful floral cloth napkins my grandmother saved for special occasions…) • What you list need not be concrete; while you might choose such “loved” items/nouns as artichoke hearts, oak trees, or ninjas, you might also choose such abstractions as being alone or getting attention.
Write Once you’ve made your list, choose one item from this list and take a moment and write one or two paragraphs using “I never knew I loved ______” as your first sentence. You should end your paragraph with “I never knew I loved _______. ” and you should use the phrase “I never knew…” three times.
(Excerpts from . . . )Things I Didn't Know I Lovedby Nazim Hikmet I never knew I loved night descending like a tired bird on a smoky wet plain I didn't know I loved the sky cloudy or clear . . . I never knew I loved roads even the asphalt kind Vera's behind the wheel we're driving . . . the two of us inside a closed box the world flows past on both sides distant and mute I was never so close to anyone in my life I just remembered the stars I love them too whether I'm floored watching them from below or whether I'm flying at their side . . . they are our endless desire to grasp things seeing them I could even think of death and not feel at all sad I never knew I loved the cosmos . . . or how much I didn't know I loved clouds whether I'm under or up above them whether they look like giants or shaggy white beasts . . .the train plunges on through the pitch-black night I never knew I liked the night pitch-black sparks fly from the engine I didn't know I loved sparks I didn't know I loved so many things and I had to wait until sixty to find it out sitting by the window on the Prague-Berlin train watching the world disappear as if on a journey of no return
Teaching to the writing standards: Argumentative Writing
CCR #1, p. 41 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
General Characteristics of Argumentative Writing Central claim or thesis states a narrowed and defined argument Sub-claims / reasons clarify premises for argument/stance Evidence to support reasoning --text and research based Concedes to and Refutes opposing arguments / counter-claims Conclusion restates central premise and summarizes
Model: Video Games What is the central claim? What are the sub-claims? Is there strong evidence? What form does it take? Is there a concession to the other point of view? Is there a strong conclusion?
Teaching to the writing standards: Informative Writing
CCR #2, p. 41 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
General Characteristics of Informative Writing • Context-setting hook • Guiding idea: what, how, why or so what • Organized main points provide a road map through paper Evidence to support topic clear, well-developed, accurate • Text and research based • Conclusion