Matter • Anything that takes up space and has mass • State of matter depends on temperature and pressure
States of Matter Solid • particles vibrate in fixed position • are packed very closely together • give solid definite shape and volume
States of Matter Liquid • particles are moving much faster • have enough energy to slide past one another • take shape of container • Liquids have a definite volume but no definite shape.
States of Matter Gas • Particles are moving very quickly • Have enough energy to move freely away from other particles • Take up as much space as possible and will spread out to fill any container • Gases can be compressed. When they are compressed, their pressure increases.
States of Matter Plasma • occurs at very high temperatures • particles move independently • No definite shape or volume-may take shape of container • some of the gas becomes electrically charged • Usually occurs in fluorescent lightbulbs, atmosphere (stars), and lightning
plasma Energy/Particle Formation
Freezing point- 0o Celsius: liquid (water) becomes solid (ice) Boiling Point- 100o Celsius: liquid (water) becomes gas (steam)
Physical Properties • Any characteristic of a material that can be seen or measured without changing the identity of the material • mass, length, volume, shape, texture, smell, hardness, color, luster, malleability, melting, freezing, boiling, evaporating, density, solubility (solute dissolves in solvent), magnetic, conductivity
Physical Changes • A change in the physicalproperties of a material, but not its identity • Ex: mixing solutions, dissolving powders, tearing/cutting paper,change in state of matter, change in volume or density, breaking glass
Chemical Properties • Any characteristic that gives a substance theability to be changed into a new substance • Chemical Properties/Changes • Flammability, corrosiveness (rust), tarnish (metals), burning of fossil fuels, combustion of car gasoline/diesel fuel, rotting (moldy cheese) digestion, photosynthesis, change in pH
Chemical Changes • A change in the identity of a substance because of the chemical properties of that substance • All chemical changes include: • The production of a new substance • An energy change • Evidence • Production of gas • Production of precipitate (new substance) • Color change • Change in temperature • (endothermic- gets colder, exothermic- gets warmer/hot) • pH change
Law of Conservation of Matter • States that, matter cannot be created or destroyed but can change form • Mass will be conserved during any change