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Future of Transportation Technologies. BJ Yurkovich. Center for Automotive Research. Energy Use. Source: A. Majumdar , ARPA-E. Energy use and per capita GDP. Energy (Fuels). Natural Gas for Mobility. Why use electricity for Mobility?. Infrastructure exists everywhere!
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Future of Transportation Technologies BJ Yurkovich Center for Automotive Research
Energy Use Source: A. Majumdar, ARPA-E
Why use electricity for Mobility? • Infrastructure exists everywhere! • Electricity is cheap (at least for now) • Electricity generation is more flexible than liquid fuels: ability to easily use renewables without disrupting the automotive market!
Renewables as a Share of Total Primary Energy Consumption, 2010 From EIA - International Energy Outlook 2011
Types of Vehicles on Road Today So what can we expect for the future? • Conventional Vehicles • Gasoline • Diesel • Electric Vehicles • Hybrid Electric Vehicles • Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles • Fuel Cell Vehicles • PEM • Natural Gas Vehicles • CNG, LNG
A Big part of the future… Energy Storage! • What types exist? • Conventional Fuels • Compressed Gases • BioDiesel • Batteries/Capacitors • Flywheels
What are we seeing today? Vehicles using batteries…. • Vehicle Electrification • Electric Vehicles • Example: Tesla, Nissan Leaf • Plug In Hybrids (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) • Chevy Volt, Ford Fusion Energi • Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) • Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, …
Batteries In Vehicles What main automotive battery chemistries exist? • Lead Acid (PbA) • Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) • Lithium Ion (Li-Ion)
Refueling an Electric Vehicle… • Level 1 Charging • Max Power Level: 1.3kW • Specifications: 120V/10A (AC) • Charge anywhere there is a socket! • Level 2 Charging • Max Power Level: 3.3kW - 6.6kW • Specifications: 220-240V, 30A (AC) • Charging stations like GE Wattstation, Blink, Coulomb Chargepoint • DC Fast-charging (Level 3) • Max Power level: 20+kW • Specifications: Various DC levels • CHΛdeMO, Combo Coupler, Tesla, etc
Small List of available CHargers • ABB (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO and Combo) • AddEnergieTechnologies (DC Level 2 & 3 planned) • Advanced Charging Technologies (A.C.T.) (DC Level 2 – dual cable CHAdeMO/Combo) • Aerovironment(DC Level 2 - CHAdeMO & DC Level 3) • Aker Wade (DC Level 2 - CHAdeMO) • Andromeda Power (Portable DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO) • BTCPower(DC Level 2) • Blink (ECOtality) (DC Level 2 CHAdeMO, charging network) • Coulomb Technology (DC Level 2, charging network) • DBT EV Charging Solutions (DC Level 2 - CHAdeMO) • Delta Electronics, Inc. (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO) • Eaton Corporation (DC Level 2 CHAdeMO) • Efacec(DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO and Combo) • Epyon (DC Level 2) (Now part of ABB) • EvCollective(DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO; onboard battery) • EVTEC AB (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO and Combo) • Fuji (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO, 25kW) • IES Synergy (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO and Combo) • JFE Engineering Corporation (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO) • Nichicon (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO) • Nissan (DC Level 2 - CHAdeMO) • PrimearthEV Energy CO., LTD. – maybe CHAdeMO?? • Schneider Electric (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO, 50kW) • Signet Systems, Inc (DC Level 2 – CHAdeMO)
Sample EV Charge Times and Amounts NOTE: These times assume you are charging from empty!!
Battery Technologies of the Future…. Metal-Air Batteries
Modeling and Simulation Systems • We can use computer models to accurately model and predict how our vehicles will behave, consume fuel, and drive based on our preferences…
FleetCalcis a web-based tool that allows fleet owners to cost-effectively • Evaluateoverall fleet costs and policy impact for an existing fleet by utilizing sophisticated computer models and fleet-owner specific data • Create alternative fleet options incorporating new vehicle technologies, future policies, and fuel prices • Compare existing and alternative fleet options to assess the cost and emissions savings between existing and future fleets www.fleetcalc.com
How is FleetCalcdifferent from other fleet comparison services? FleetCalcusessophisticated computer models, allowing the system to simulate the real routes of fleet vehicles that are entered by the user. www.fleetcalc.com