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Rhino sinusitis PowerPoint Presentation
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Rhino sinusitis

Rhino sinusitis

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Rhino sinusitis

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  1. Rhinosinusitis M.MohammadiArdehali,MD. Associate Professor of TUMS AMIRALAM HOSPITAL

  2. Anatomy

  3. Development • MAXILLARY AND ETHMOID SINUSES DEVELOPS DURING 3RD & 4TH GESTATIONAL MONTH AND GROW IN SIZE UNTIL LATE ADOLESCENCE • SPHENOID SINUS PRESENTS BY 2 YEARS OF AGE • FRONTAL SINUS DEVELOPS DURING 5 AND 6 YRS.

  4. Factors Predisposing To Obstruction Of Sinus Drainage. B.MECHANICAL OBSTRUCTION Choanalatresia Deviated septum Nasal polyp Foreign body Tumor Ethmoidbullae C.MUCUS ABNORMALITIES Viral URI Allergic inflammation Cystic fibrosis A.MUCOSAL SWELLING Systemic disorder Viral URI Allergic inflammation Cystic fibrosis Immune disorder Immotile cilia Local insult Facial trauma Swimming, diving Rhinitis medicamentosa

  5. Pathophysiology Key Factors: • The patency of the ostia • Normal ciliary function • The quality and quantity • of secretion

  6. The patency of the ostia Obstruction of the sinus ostium Negative pressure Intruduction of bacteria sinusitis

  7. Normal ciliary function • ciliary Dysfunction • Impaired secretion clearance • Sinusitis

  8. The quality and quantity of secretion • Antioxidanactiviy • Humidification of URT • Entrapping microorganisms • Immunologic antimicrobial functions Loss of: Sinusitis

  9. Epidemiology Incidence • Lifetime Incidence: 25% • United States clinic office visits: 1% • Attendance at Day Care Center • Occurs during viral respiratory season • School-age siblings in the household

  10. Definitions: Acute Rhinosinusitis

  11. Transition from Viral to Bacterial Infection Transition from Viral to Bacterial Infection • Up to 2% of VRS complicated by bacterial infection • Day 1-10: Can be difficult to distinguish VRS from ABRS. • “Double Sickening” Pattern • Pt initially gets better then gets worse • Consistent with ABRS

  12. PERSISTENT >10 DAYS No appreciable improvement Nasal discharge of any quality Cough(must be present during day) Malodorous breath Facial Pain and headache are rare If fever then low grade May not appear very ill SEVERE High fever > 39 C Purulent nasal discharge And Present for at least 3-4 days Headaches may be present Periorbital swelling occasionally Symptoms And Signs

  13. Subacute Sinusitis • 30 days to 4 months • Mild to moderate and often intermittent symptoms • Nasal discharge of any quality • Cough often worse at night • Low-grade fever may be periodic usually not prominent

  14. Chronic Sinusitis • Extremely protracted nasal symptoms • Discharge • or Congestion • or Cough or both • Some cases rhinorhhea minimal or absent • Nasal congestion-mouth breathing-sore throat

  15. Chronic Sinusitis • Chronic headache usually on awakening • Intermittent fever • Malodorous breath • Secondary affects • fatigue, impaired sleep • decreased appetite • irritability

  16. Physical Findings • Mucopurulent discharge in nose or posterior pharynx • Nasal mucosa- erythematous • Throat- moderate injection • Ears- acute otitis or otitis with effusion • Paranasal sinus tenderness- occasionally • Periorbital edema-occasionally • Malodorous breath

  17. Differential Diagnosis-Purulent Nasal Discharge • Uncomplicated viral URI • Group A Strep infection • Adenoiditis • Nasal foreign body

  18. Differential Diagnosis- Nasal Symptoms • Persistent clear nasal discharge or nasal congestion • Allergic rhinitis: nasal discharge, congestion, sneezing, itchiness of eyes, nose, other mucous membranes, pale boggy mucosa, Dennies lines, allergic shiners, transverse crease on bridge of nose, headaches

  19. Differential Diagnosis-Nasal Symptoms • No allergic rhinitis -resemble allergic rhinitis children -specific allergens cannot be demonstrated, IgE levels normal, radioallergosorbenttest negative • Rhinitis Medicamentosa • Vasomotor Rhinitis

  20. Differential Diagnosis-Cough • Reactive airway disease • GER • CF • pertussis • Mycoplasma bronchitis • TB

  21. Diagnosis

  22. Diagnosis-Imaging • Standard views • Anterioposterior • Lateral • Occipitomental • Sinus XRay (Rarely indicated) • Complicated Acute Sinusitis • Suspected Chronic Sinusitis • Significantly abnormal in 88% of children younger than 6

  23. Imaging

  24. Imaging

  25. Imaging

  26. Diagnosis- CT Scans • Frequent abnormalities are found in patients with a “fresh common cold” • Indications • complicated sinus disease(either orbital or CNS complications) • numerous recurrences • protracted or nonresponsive symptoms(surgery is being contemplated)

  27. Axial CTScan

  28. Diagnosis- CT Scans • Limitations of CT: • Radiation may be 10x that of plain films • lack of specificity for bacterial infection

  29. DIAGNOSIS • The diagnosis is based largely on symptoms with confirmation by nasendoscopy

  30. Areendoscopically-directed cultures of the middle meatusan acceptable means of documenting microbiological diagnosis of acute sinusitis?

  31. Talbot et al. (1995) • 47 evaluable patients with acute maxillary sinusitis • overall sensitivity = 65%, specificity =40% • better performance with Streptococcus pneumoniae,Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis • increased isolation of staphylococcal species with endoscopic cultures

  32. ABRS Microbiology • Streptococcus pneumoniae30-40% • Haemophilusinfluenzae20% • Moraxellacatarrhalis20% • Strep pyogenes 4% • Respiratory viral isolates 10% • adenovirus • parainfluenzae • influenzae • rhinovirus • Other rarer isolates- group A strep, group C strep, viridians strep, peptostrep, Moraxella species, Eikenellacorrodens

  33. CRS Microbiology: • Anaerobes • gm+ cocci, bacteroides, corynebacteria • Staphylococcus aureus • Streptococcus • H. Influenzae • M. catarrhalis

  34. Complications

  35. Complications of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis • Preseptal cellulitis • Orbital cellulitis • Osteomyelitis • Subperiosteal orbital abscess • Subdural or Epidural Empyema • Meningitis • Brain abscess • Cortical thrombophlebitis • Cavernous or sagittal sinus thrombophlebitis

  36. 6 weeks post op.

  37. Treatment

  38. Choice of Antibiotic for ABRS Wright & Frankel

  39. Symptomatic Relief of Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis • Adjunctive treatments for rhinosinusitis that may aid in symptomatic relief include • decongestants (-adrenergic) • corticosteroids (topical?) • saline irrigation • Mucolytics • **None of these products have been specifically approved by the FDA for use in acute rhinosinusitis (as of February 2007), and few have data from controlled clinical studies supporting this use.

  40. Treatment: cont, • In patients with acute sinusitis 40-50% have spontaneous clinical cure rate • Hospitalization- systemic toxicity or unable to take oral antimicrobials • cefuroxime • ampicillin/sulbactam • cefotaxime and vanco. if suspecting penicillin-resistant strep pneumoniae

  41. Treatment: cont, • Clinical improvement is prompt • If no reduction of nasal discharge or cough in 48 hours reevaluate • Patients with brisk response- 10 days of treatment • If respond more slowly- treat until patient is symptom free plus 7 more days

  42. Recurrent Sinusitis • Most common cause is recurrent viral URIs • day care attendance • presence of other school age siblings in house • Other predisposing conditions • allergic and nonallergic rhinitis • CF • immunodeficiency disorder • ciliarydyskinesia • anatomical problem

  43. Absolute Indications for Surgery • Failure of maximal medical therapy • Causing brain abscess or meningitis, subperiosteal/orbital abscess, cavernous sinus thrombosis, another contiguous infection, or an impending complication (Pott’s tumor) • Sinus mucocele or pyocele • Fungal sinusitis (all types( • Nasal polyps (massive ) • Neoplasm or suspected neoplasm

  44. Surgery • Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) • Rarely required in children • Consider if anatomical variations causing local obstruction,