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Guidebook to Global History

Guidebook to Global History

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Guidebook to Global History

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  1. Guidebook to Global History By: Emily Arlantico

  2. UNIT 1: Social Studies Basics “History is the story of humanity’s past.” (Doc. # 2, World History, Amsco, p.1)

  3. Types of Resources, Govt., and Economic Systems • Natural - water, land, nature • Human - work, skills, talent • Capital - computers, finance, tools • Info - ideas • Monarchy - 1 ruler from a royal family, power is inherited. • Oligarchy - A few rich rulers have power, rich get richer, poor get poorer. • Tyranny - Powerful military leader forced his way into power, manipulates arm to enforce all the rules, a.k.a. Dictatorship • Democracy - a) Direct Democracy - all citizens vote on all issues • b) Representative Democracy - elected people represent their citizens and vote for them. • Traditional = religion • Command = government • Market = The people * Our Modern world is so diverse and countries so different having different governments, marketing systems, and valuable resources. Each country has its uniqueness that sets it apart from other countries.

  4. UNIT 2: River Valley Civilizations “Egypt is the gift of the Nile.” - Herodotus

  5. Ancient River Valley Egypt • Nile River Valley Civilization (believed in polytheism and made the Hymn to Nile) • Old Kingdom lasted from 2700 - 1786 BC where they developed hieroglyphics and religion. Pyramids were starting to be created and built. • Middle Kingdom lasted from 2040 - 1786 BC where Egypt was able to control Nubia. • New Kingdom lasted from 1570 - 1075 BC where Egypt was extremely militaristic by enslaving Hebrews. The art of mummification was perfected. • Geography: • The Nile River is one of their more prominent features back then and even now. The Nile River flooded areas surrounding it predictably. • Egypt is surrounded by deserts that defended them from invasion and benefitted them more by preserving artifacts. • Religion: • Pharaoh was the “living god” in relation to absolutists where their king or queen was “god’s representative on earth”. S/he was a direct descendant of the Sun god that has control over the access to the afterlife. They believed in the 365 day calendar. • They believed in the afterlife; life after death, primarily through mummification though it only benefitted the Pharaoh most. • Polytheism was the belief in many gods, specifically for them it was the belief of 200+ gods. • Some of them include Osiris named “God of the Dead” and Horus named “God of balance and harmony”. It took about 70 steps to create a mummy. It was necessary to have canopic jars made of alabaster used for storing the heart, stomach, intestines and liver. Daily Life: • Living in Ancient Egypt consisted of wearing cosmetics, wigs, and sanitary conditions of bathing 3 times a day and shaving. Their food consumption consisted of beer and bread but also included the crops that they grew such as emmer, barley, flax, lentils, onion, beans, and millet thus many people took on the job of farming. Houses and structures were made from sun-dried mud bricks. • Hieroglyphics were created in Egypt and during this time period. Their language is written without vowels, and were used in places like temples. The Rosetta Stone was found at the west bank of the Nile River near the place of Rosetta during 1799 which was later deciphered.

  6. Pharaohs Pharaohs: • Pharaoh Hatshepsut was known as the “Promoter of Egyptian Trade” for trading with other societies like the Punts. She was also known for being the first female pharaoh and reigned Egypt from 1473-1458 B.C.E. • Pharaoh Khufu was known as the “Pyramid Builder” because during his reign from 2551-2528 B.C.E., the Great Pyramid of Giza was built, eventually being one of the wonders of the ancient world. He was extremely strict about the food supply and was thought to be cruel but powerful. • Pharaoh Ramses II was known as the “Military Leader and Master Builder” for his outstanding work in the military including becoming a captain only at the age of 10 and a fearless soldier. He was also known as a peacemaker by signing the first peace treaty, but he also had 100 wives and children. His reign lasted from 1290-1240 B.C.E. • Pharaoh Senusret I was known as “Patron of the Arts” from allowing art, literature and architecture to thrive. He was able to unify Egypt and had control over the mines.

  7. Ancient River Valley China • Yellow River Valley Civilization had valleys with rich soil, they raised cattle sheep and had water fields using ditches and canals. It received its name because of the yellow sediment residing in the water. Chinese Huang River / Yellow River. • Named the “River of Sorrows” because of the floods that killed so many. Geography: • The Great Wall of China, On the east coast lies the Pacific Ocean, Huang Ge river, Yangtze river • They were able to supply their own goods, had natural boundaries like mountains of bodies of water. • Elders and spirits were respected, men were the leaders, women were to be obedient. Made sacrifices and religious ceremonies included oracle bones, tortoise shells. • Timeline: • Walls of china’s first cities were built 1,500 years after the walls of Ur. • Around the settlements along Huan He in 2000 BC, it grew into China’s first cities. • Chinese dynasty rose. • Shang Dynasty rose to power in northern China 1532 to 1027 BC. • Zhou overthrew the Shang in 1027. • Advanced civilizations produced iron tools and weapons in 1000 BC. • 1887 A.D. The Great Flood occurred.

  8. Philosophers • Confucius – founded Confucianism that taught men of good character to respect and had 5 basic relationships. Heavily influenced culture. • Laozi – founded Daoism that taught people to live simple and believe in nature, true harmony, Yin and Yang. Influenced more peaceful rulers. • Hanfeizi – founded Legalism that taught rulers to have strict laws, absolute power, and a strong military. Influenced the government and the Qin Dynasty.

  9. Ancient River Valley Mesopotamia • Tigris Euphrates River Valley Civilization. Fertile Crescent got it’s name because it’s fertile soil grow good crops in an area between rivers where it is shaped like a moon. • They were known as the Sumerians/Mesopotamians/Babylonians. They had no stone or timber and built with marsh reeds, river mud, brick mold and baked clay. Their government was a regional govt. Cuneiform is their writing that consisted of triangle shapes for words. • Geography: • The Fertile Crescent is a land with a curved shape with rich soil and land for farming. Around this area had a desert climate. • Civilization: • Advanced Cities, Specialized Workers, Complex Intuition, Record Keeping, Advanced Tech, Used Cuneiform, Lack of defense, had droughts but created irrigation ditches • Religion: Polytheism - belief in many gods, made Ziggurat temples • Social Pyramid: Pharaoh (supreme ruler), Viziers and High Priests (Directed Religious Ceremonies), Royal Overseers (Pharaoh’s Army), District Governors (Tax Collectors), Scribes (Wrote Hieroglyphics), Artisans (Made goods), Farmers and Labourers • Cultural Diffusion: process of a new idea or a product spreading from one culture to another. Results in disagreements and diversity. In Mesopotamia they traded with mountain and desert people in the neighboring area because they had limited resources they had to expand their resource pool. • Inventions: Invented the wheel, sail, plow, first to use bronze, map, science, math, mud/bricks/mortar, arches, columns and ramps. • Govt.: “Eye for an eye”. Babylonian King Hammurabi created the first legal code. Hammurabi’s Code had 282 laws based on justice & retaliation which had different punishment for the various levels of society.

  10. Indus River Valley Civilization • Deccan Plateau - Triangle shaped area between 2 mountain ranges. • Eastern and Western Ghats - Long mountain chains that form a large V. • Ganges River - Flows across Northern India. River carries sediment from Himalayas to Northern Plains.  • Himalayan Mountains - Highest mountain range in the world, natural border between India and the rest of Asia.  • Hindu Kush Mountains - Fierce barrier between India and Afghanistan, not as tall as the Himalayas.  • Indus River -  Begins at the Himalayas, gets water from Hindu Kush mountains and other mountain ranges. Water level is high. • TharDesert -  Huge rolling sand dunes that stretch for 100's of miles. • Brahmaputra River - Starts high up in the Himalayas, clear cold, slower and deeper as it moves into the valley. Each summer the rain causes the river to overflow.

  11. UNIT 3: Greece and Rome

  12. Athens / Sparta and the Battle of Thermopylae Greece • Peninsula and small islands. • Mountainous, scarce farmland. • Being surrounded by sea allowed trade and travel. • Because of the mountains, they had to build city-states – a city with its own laws, rulers, and wealth. • Focused more on education than war, contrary to the Spartans. • Women were thought of poorly and only focused on being a house-wife. Sparta • Isolated themselves. • Oligarchy govt. composed of a group of elders. • Focused on war rather than education, contrary to the Athenians. • Weak infants were killed. • Women had certain freedom. The Battle of Thermopylae • King Xeres ordered an attack on Greece • Athenians and Spartans collaborated to fight. • Athens Navy tried to stop the Persian Navy while Leonidas tried to stop the Persian Army.

  13. Greek and Roman Philosophers Socrates (470- 399 BC) • Developed the Socratic method of questioning people in order to : establish the truth about life and to get people to think for themselves instead of relying on superstition and the culture of any society. • Tried, jailed and executed for the crime of getting people to think/challenge their minds. Plato (427 BC - 347 BC) • Wrote the Republic and believed that only a philosopher-king could properly rule a fair and just society. • Student of Socrates and started a school called “The Academy."  Aristotle • Established the idea of the "golden mean," everything should be done in moderation: not too much, not too little. • Student of Plato who wrote about science, art, law, poetry, and government.  • Inexperienced and never practiced what he preached. 

  14. Roman Republic • Founded in 753 B.C. • Built on rolling hills near the Tiber river at the center of the Italian Peninsula. • Patricians – wealthy land owners • Plebeians – farmers, artisans, merchants that made up the majority of the population. • Plebian assembly and elected representatives were called tribunes. • By the fourth century B.C  the Romans dominated Central Italy. • Rome's location near a body of water gave it easy access to the riches of the lands ringing in the Mediterranean Sea. • During 264 B.C. Rome and Carthage went into war, known as the Punic Wars (3 wars in 23 Years), ending in Carthage's defeat. The mastermind behind the War was a Carthaginian general named Hannibal. • Julius Cesear- an emperor who created jobs for poor Roman citizens, forced land-workers to use paid workers including slaves, and distributed land conquered by the Roman Army to poor citizens. • Gladiators were a bloody source of entertainment who were usually condemned criminals, slaves, and/or prisoner of war. • The Fall of the Roman Empire - Rise of Christianity, Economic Problems and Vastness of Empires. * The demise of the Roman Empire was foreseeable because of how things and events were already playing out. The large population of the Empire could not all live equally and the bad economy only helped spark its fall. I think that there was no way of avoiding such a catastrophe, and it makes me think, could our modern world, our modern countries fall just as well?

  15. UNIT 4: World Religions *We should put aside our differences and our beliefs so that we could live as one.

  16. Christianity • Originated from Palestine. • Founded by Jesus. • Sacred Texts included the Christian Bible (Old and New Testaments). • Roman and Orthodox Churches have hierarchical rule by the chief bishop (either Pope or Patriarch), archbishops, bishops, pastors. • It is a monotheistic religion – belief in one god. • Believers were freed from their sins and are given the option of resurrection and salvation in their afterlife. •  Holy Trinity: Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit • Two Principal rites/sacraments: Baptism and the Eucharist, a sacred meal  with prayers, chants and Mass. • The Western European (Latin Church) branch and the Byzantine/Orthodox Church branch. • The Western  Church was divided by the 26th century Reformation into the Roman Catholic Church and a large number of smaller Protestant Churches including Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican and Sectarian. 

  17. Hinduism • Originated in India. • Unknown founder. • Sacred texts included The Vedas, a holy book. • Buddha is a reincarnation of one of their Gods. • Only Brahmins and Priests can achieve moksha. • Believed in the Caste system and karma. • Is a polytheistic religion. • Believed in nature, heaven and hell. • Desire is the root cause of our suffering. • Believed in reincarnation.

  18. Judaism • Originated in Canaan. • Founded in 1500- 1000 B.C (Abraham) Moses, Solomon, David, Prophets and Judges. • Sacred Texts included theTorah(Mishna and Talmud), and the Hebrew Bible. • Synagogues were led by the rabbi. •  First organized religion to teach monotheism. •  God had special covenant with the ancient Israelites •  God's message to humankind: seeking a just and peaceful world order with the prohibition of images.  • Strict Discipline through daily prayers, family relationships, ethical behavior (Ten Commandments), ritual practices, dietary laws, and public observances (Passover, Rosh Hashana, and Yom Kippur).  • Lawfulness - the idea that God sets down moral laws and agrees to be fair to those who obey him. •  History - the idea that God is changing the world and leading humanity to a better life.

  19. Islam • Originated from the Arabian Peninsula • Sacred texts included The Holy Quran Beliefs and practices • Monotheistic (belief in one god) • The last prophet is Muhammad. • God is the only one true God • Must believe in  One God, prophets, angels, resurrection and judgment, predestination, and revelation The 5 Pillars  • The Profession of Faith • Ritual Prayer – had to pray • Zakat – people had to give to charity • Fasting – they fasted during the month of Ramadan • Hajj – had to take a pilgrimage

  20. UNIT 5: Global Encounters

  21. Byzantine Empire Government • Legal Code had fair laws where the ruler is emperor, Justinian wrote the laws and there was a court system. • No one suffers penalty due to the way they think and no one maybe forcibly removed from their own house. • Cosmopolitan Society. • Many different races found unity within the framework of a Christian Empire. • Derived ideas from Ancient Greece and Rome, somewhat influenced by civilizations of Asia.  Religion - Christianity (Eastern Orthodox) •  Stopped Islam from advancing. •  By the 11th Century Christianity divides into two: Roman Catholicand Eastern Orthodox. •  Russian Christianity impacted Byzantine origin and model. Culture   • Greek was translated by the Byzantine Public. • Artists and Craftsmen brought fine textiles, illustrated manuscripts and Byzantine architecture, to Western Europe. • Church of Saint Sophia demonstrates the amazing architecture , stone architecture. Influenced by strong religious values. Economics •  Constantinople was the center of Mediterranean economy until the end of the 12th Century, and its gold coin was the medium of international exchange. •  Most of the major trade routes directed to Constantinople. •  There was easy access to trade because of their Mediterranean  sea localization. Legacy • The Byzantine Empire had strongly influenced the Russian language and had copied their religious ideas.  * For the Russians to have been influenced so greatly by the Byzantine Empire, the Byzantine Empire must have been so successful in the eyes of some, despite its inevitable demise.

  22. Feudal Japan Feudalism – a social system that granted land to the noble by the king. Geography • Japan is a small nation with mountainous regions and is located in Asia on an archipelago. Social Pyramid • Emperor lived in Kyoto and only played ceremonial roles. • Shogun was at  Edo (currently Tokyo) and held the ultimate power. • Daimyo - feudal lords. • Samurai - class of warriors that served at a local army and had to work hard. If they divulge in frivolity they have to commit Seppuku.  • Farmers- peasants that paid taxes to upper class. • Women were considered low class. Culture • The spread of Yayoi and Tomb cultures brought advances on agriculture and bronze working. • Clay Haniwa recorded the life an culture of the tomb-age. • Prince Shotoku is credited with the acceptance of Chinese culture in Japan. • Art styles were adopted from China.  Religion • Kamiwere the deities of heaven and earth that appeared in the ancient records and also the spirits of Shrines were worshiped. Emperors were considered distant Kami's. • Buddhism • Shintoism – polytheistic religion dealing with spirits and nature. Economics • Farmers paid taxes to higher ups. • Merchants  were very rich, but had a lesser value than the upper class. • Shogunate capital of Edo was located in the Kanto plains (most productive regions). • System of highways connected Shogun's regions together. Legacy • Japanese culture had spread into most Asian countries, mainly spreading in Korea and China.  • Tokugawa Ieyasu united Japan and made sure power stayed within the Tokugawa family. • The closing off of the country and opening only Nagasaki to the Chinese and Dutch caused isolation.  • The limitation of religions decreased cultural diffusion.  • Movement was controlled, there was a long time of peace and Samurai's had nothing to do, so they started more peaceful pursuits and so they acted in the Kabuki theater. • PAX TOKUGAWA wasdeveloped for Samurai's to be more peaceful and simple. *Japan’s decision to stay isolated from most of the world (excluding Korea to trade with) is probably what added to the peaceful life for them to focus on nature, required in the religion of Shintoism.

  23. African Kingdoms Government • ​Sundiata claimed to be emperor, Mansa. • Only the chiefs of Mali and Wagdu could be the king. • There were elements of a democracy and a monarchy. • Power was passed on between male leaders.  • Sultan court shows that their is a tradition associated with the court. Only the Dugha speaks to the Sultan. Economy and Trade • Traded throughout the entire continent which included slaves, copper, and salt.Tunis is the main trading center in Africa. • Salt was as valuable as gold and silver. • Iron tools and weapon parts were from Middle Niger. • Town of Tangaza was significant in the trading of salt and other goods.  Religion • Mosque's and houses were made of rock salt. • The growth of Islam spread all over the kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. • Batuta had traveled from place to place spreading Islam.  • Mansa Musa was also another important figure., king of the Mali empire in West Africa.

  24. The Mongols • The Mongols settled on the largest land empire that stretched across Asia and Eastern Europe. Government  • Conquered people were forced to pay tribute to the Mongols but were otherwise allowed to maintain their lifestyle and culture. • Mongol rulers in China were allowed the freedom of worship, which reduced the threat of rebellion. • The Mongol rulers encouraged intermarriage with the conquered people, which made  the Mongols seems more like fellow citizens and not invaders. • They allowed the torture of people, and enforced heavy taxes. • It led to the harsh and strict methods of control developing in Russia and China. • PAX MONGOLIAcreated peace and stability which led to trading interactions with Europe. • Nicknamed the: Tartars (People from Hell) Culture • By conquering all around Eurasia, they were able to require many goods from foreign lands that added to the cultural diffusion. Economics • Created heavy taxes in Russia and corrupted economy. • They had created the postal system and canals. Conquests • Massacred many in Russia and the few remaining were forced into slavery. • Depended on China's transportation. • Ruled Russia for over 250 years, that stunted their growth for hundreds of years. Legacy • The transportation system in China had a grand canal linking the Yellow and Yangtze rivers. • This empire had the greatest amount of territory ruled.

  25. UNIT 6: Middle Ages • Increasing violence and lawless areas led to the creation of feudalism. • The weak turned to the strong for protection, in return the strong wanted food, respect, and work from the weak. *The Middle Ages was large in means of what occurred during that time period. Both art, government, religion and war had a role in molding the Middle Ages.

  26. The Church, Decline of Feudalism, and the Magna Carta • Christian Church had become an important political, economic, spiritual, and cultural force in Europe. Leading officials of the church were the ​​Popeand Patriarch. • ​Heresy, beliefs against the doctrine,was banned.  • Conversion of religion was done by force. • The Decline of Feudalism was the result of the shift in power between the wealthy and the poor, the Black Plague, and several other factors. • The Magna Carta, made by King John of England was an agreement that limited the power of English kings and nobles.

  27. The Black Death and the 100 Year War • The Black Death was also known as the Bubonic Plague that was said to have originated from somewhere in China and had traveled to Europe because of interactions during trading. It wiped out about 1/3 of the population in Europe because the disease spread so rapidly from the filthy conditions in the streets people were living in. There many, many, many, fleas on rats. • The 100 Year War was a war between France and England over whose land was whose. During this war, Joan of Arc made her debut by leading the French to victory in the Battle of Orleans. She was only a 17 year old peasant hearing voices telling her to lead the war. In the end, she was captured and burned at a stake for heresy.

  28. UNIT 7: Renaissance and Reformation * Art and religion prospered during this time period. Art truly had developed and perfected by studying anatomy and using different utensils and materials to create a masterpiece.

  29. Causes and Effects Causes • More people move into the city. • Trade and commerce goes up. • Patrons supported learning and the arts.  Effects • More focus on crafts and merchants. • Creation of new coin money. • New buildings, schools, and art being produced. • Italian City States had many trading commerce, which led to worth. • Italy spread the idea of city-states throughout Europe. • Conducted their own trade and collected taxes. • Encouraged art and learning because of their wealth. • Became independent and demanded self-rule.

  30. Art Comparisons Classical Art  • 500 B.C and 5000 C.E • Life-like and nude or toga wearing figures. • Calm and emotionless faces. • Displayed heroic figures. • Little background in paintings. Medieval Art • Religious images. • Very stiff and lack of movement. • Bright paint colors. Renaissance Art • 1300 C.E - 1600 C.E • Lifelike and 3D. • Expression developed on faces.  • Images developed perspective in foreground and background. • Realistic light and images.

  31. Machiavelli • Born on May 3, 1469 • Grew up in Florence and worked to improve government of the Medici family. • His most famous work is his book titled the “The Prince” which was written in 1513. It portrayed his sense of an ideal government and leader.

  32. The Reformation • Martin Luther was a monk in Germany. • During 1517 he put his “95 Theses” on the door of a church which listed his arguments against the wrongdoings of the church. • With the help of the Printing Press, Martin was able to spread the word out to others and wrote his ideas in the vernacular for everybody to understand. • This led to the split of the church into different sects.

  33. UNIT 8: Age of Exploration

  34. The Three G’s and Inventions Causes of Exploration •  Gold - Discovering new colonies and resources would lead to great wealth. •  God – Spreading the word of God and converting more people to their own religion by going on missionary missions. • Glory -  The need of a new trade route to Asia encouraged people to explore new areas that brought fame if they were successful. The Europeans also wished to stop the Muslim and Italian hold on Asia. There is not always positive outcomes that comes from exploration. Some results can lead to starvation, mutiny, and death, which is what prevents many people from daring to adventure. Technology • Compass - a navigational device invented in China.  • Improved Maps -with the creation of the latitude and longitude systems, maps were more accurate. • Astrolabe - a navigation device that uses the stars to pinpoint their location. * Cultural diffusion boomed during this time period because of the interaction between different and diverse cultures. The trading propelled the cultural diffusion even more because so many exotic and rare items were traded with other foreign produce and goods.

  35. Explorers, Conquistadors, Commercial Revolution Bartolomeu Dias  • In 1488 he became the first to travel around the Southern Tip of Africa. • Unfortunately, he died at Sea and never made it to India. Vasco De Gama • In 1497 he sailed around Africa and all the way to India, doing what Bartolomeu could not. • He brought back many valuable spices, but lost half of his crew on the journey back home. Christopher Columbus • Was born an Italian but sailed for Spain in 1492 to search for a safer route to India. • He landed in the Caribbean Sea instead, and was credited with discovering the Americas. Ferdinand Magellan  • In 1519 he set sail  with 5 ships and 250 men to circumnavigate the globe. • He died during the journey and only 18 men survived to complete their goal. Hernan Cortes  • In 1519 he traveled to Mexico to explore and found the Aztec Empire. • Cortes held their Emperor Montezuma as captive and seized control of the empire. Francisco Pizarro • In 1520 he traveled to South America in order to conquer the Incas, in hopes of reaching the same success as Cortes. Commercial Revolution • Commerce – Trade, Revolution – Change, Because of exploration, trading patterns changed the European nations

  36. R.A.C.E.D. and Capitalism • R. Rigid Class System On top were the Spanish, in the middle where the Mestizo (Part Spanish, part Native American), on the bottom where Native Americans and slaves. • A. African Slave Trade – slaves were traded from Africa to the Americas to work in the colonies. Conditions on the boats were inhumane and many of the slaves died on the journey across the sea. The Middle Passage. • C. Columbian Exchange – many goods and produce were exchanged between the Americas, Africa, and Europe. Corn, fruits, horses, grapes, pineapples, and other products were traded. • E. Economic Policies changed – resulted in mercantilism, system where merchants sell more than they buy. • D. Disease Spread to the Americas- the Europeans brought unfamiliar diseases to the Native Americans who weren’t immune to them that created such large epidemics that lead to the fall of their own empires. • Capitalism – an economic system where a country’s trade are controlled for profit by private owners. Its goal was to exchange maximum profit.

  37. UNIT 9: Absolutism to Enlightenment

  38. Absolutism and an Enlightenment Philosopher • The Divine Right Theory mentioned that the King/Queen was God’s representative on Earth. • Such a title was inherited and only the king could control foreign affairs, the law-making body, and could do no wrong. • People had to be obedient to the king because obedience to the king is obedience to God. • An example of an Absolutist Leader would be King Louis the 14th named the “Sun King” who put France in debt by spending a bulk of taxpayer’s money for his own greed and thrusting France into war. • One Enlightenment Philosopher was Jean Jacques Rousseau who later on, through his work was able to inspire the French to rebel against their government by opening up the perspective that they could not be controlled by the upper class. • Jean’s words were powerful and true enough to inspire those who were struggling to speak out their minds and opinions. In this modern world, most places allow the freedom of speech to some extent, and don’t try to censor most of what we say because everyone deserves such a privilege.

  39. UNIT 10: French Revolution

  40. Causes and Start of the French Revolution Causes • The French were inspired by Enlightenment Ideas of freedom. • Social inequality amongst the estates propelled the French to fight for equality. The Beginning • The Tennis Court Oath (1789) was made to achieve equality amongst the Third and the upper Estates. The Third Estates (the Bourgeoisie) would be locked out of council meetings, and in general would not have the luxuries or benefits that the Second and First Estates would receive because of their wealth, power, and status. Despite having no real or lasting effect, being one of the first events of the French Revolution, it propelled and inspired other events such as the Storming of the Bastille to occur and have a real, lasting impact in France. • The Storming of the Bastille (July 14, 1789) was triggered by the need of weapons and the fear that the French citizens would be killed by foreigners. Thus, seeing the Bastille as a symbol of the government, encouraged the French to rebel and storm the prison and release what few prisoners were kept. However, their goal was not to just release the prisoners, but to also take control of the weapon stash stored inside. Part of the reason why this event was so successful for the French was because the soldiers refused to kill the rebels since they were the same as them. They were plucked from the Third Estate of peasants and craftsmen to serve the unfair King Louis XIV and would not turn against their own flesh and blood. Currently, France marks July 14th Bastille Day.

  41. The Rise and Fall of Napoleon • His fate was miserable and was beheaded because he gained enough power and fame to be called king. • He was born in Corsica during 1769 as a son of the noble. • At 19 years old, he became an officer of the French Army. • On November 11, 1799, he was able to seize control of France to create a new Constitution. • Because French territory expanded, he made a few countries satellite states where many of them were nationalists. • Blocking trade from Great Britain damaged the economy. • Attempted to invade Russia but failed. • Banished to Elba in 1814. • Captured at the battle of Waterloo and died 1821. • Napoleon was manipulative and controlled the news. *Paintings of him were meant to depict a strong king, and were deceiving. Such acts are done in the modern world as well, having to censor some media and secrets from the general public.

  42. Vocabulary • Primary Source - an original piece of evidence such as artifacts. • Secondary Source – a source taken from several places such as an encyclopedia. • Scarcity -  when there is a lack of resources. • Economics - the study of production and goods. • Supply – the amount of resources available. • Demand – the amount of resources wanted. • Estates - the French Social Classes. • Bourgeoisie - the French middle class. • Geocentric – the theory of the Earth centered universe. • Heliocentric – the theory of the Sun centered universe. • Absolutism - a government with one ruler with ultimate power. • Enlightenment - the time period in history where there was an outlook of many educated Europeans. • Social Contract - an agreement in which people give up certain powers in return for the benefits of government. • Natural Rights – the rights that belong to people simply because they are human beings.  • ​Age of Exploration - time period in history where the Europeans began exploring all areas of the world. • Cartography - the art and science of map-making. • Circumnavigate - to travel completely around something • Epidemic - a widespread disease. • Conquistadors - Spanish explorers and conquerors. • Mercantilism – an economic policy where countries sell more than they can buy. • Renaissance - the time period in history where there was a rebirth of learning and the arts. • Humanism – the philosophy that believed in the worth and value of the individual. • Patron - a person who supports the arts or other activities by supplying them. • Secular - focus on beliefs that are non-religious.  • Sacred - refers to the focus beliefs that are rooted in religion.  • Printing Press - an invention that used movable type to create mass production of written material.  • Indulgence - a grant by the church that releases a person from their sins.  • Denomination - a particular religious grouping with a larger faith.  • Sect - a group with its own beliefs and practices. • Reformation - the time period in history when the church was reformed and split into a variety of sects.  • Fief - the land given by a lord in return for a Vassal's military service and loyalty.  • Serfs – the common peasants who worked the Lord's Land. • Tithe - tax that the serfs paid to the church. • Triumvirate - a group consisting of 3 rulers. • Republic - a form of government in which power belongs to the citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders. • Patricians – the wealthy landowners with most power. • Plebeians – the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up most of the population. • Tribune - an assembly formed with elected representatives. • Consul - commanded the army and directed the government. • Senate - aristocratic branch of Rome's government. • Legion - roman soldiers organized into large military units.  • Cultural Diffusion - the process of a new idea or product spreading from one culture to another.