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Imperialism

Imperialism

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Imperialism

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  1. Imperialism

  2. The United States As An Emergent World Power

  3. In the 1880s there was a movement to make the United States a world power • Why? • The United States was facing economic and military competition from other nations • The United States had an air of superiority

  4. Imperialism is the economic and political domination of a strong nation over a weaker nation

  5. Seward’s Folly

  6. March 30, 1867 the United States purchased Alaska from Russia • Known as Seward’s Folly, Johnson’s Icebox • The Senate ratified the treaty to purchase Alaska by one vote • Many thought the purchase was a waste of money • The purchase did remove Russia from North America

  7. New Markets/Europe

  8. Due to the industrial revolution the US was focused on building a strong manufacturing economy • European nations were expanding their power overseas • The European nations engaged in imperialism • Late 1800s European nations already industrialized

  9. High tariffs were in place in Europe • Trade between nations was difficult • Europe was forced to look for overseas markets • Investment opportunities in Europe were non-existent • There were investment opportunities in Africa and Asia

  10. In order to protect investments European nations attempted to control areas where capital was invested and their products were sold • Some nations became colonies, others protectorates • Protectorates = imperial power allowed local rulers to remain in place, protected them from rebellion and invasion

  11. In exchange for protection the local rulers accepted advice from the European power on how to govern • European expansion concerned the US, American industrialization grew, Americans became interested in the new imperialism • Until the late 1800s expansion for the US , settle more area in North America

  12. Western frontier settled, America needed overseas markets to keep the economy strong • US was able to raise and produce more than the nation could consume • New markets were needed for production, for occupation for capital and work for a growing labor force

  13. Social Darwinism

  14. Supporters of Social Darwinism saw that nations competed against each other politically, economically, and militarily, and only the strongest would survive • This line of thought was used to justify expanding American power overseas

  15. John Fiske and Anglo-Saxonism

  16. Popular thought promoted by historian-writer John Fiske went beyond Social Darwinism • The idea that English speaking nations had superior character, ideas, and systems of government and were destined to dominate the planet • The idea known as Anglo-Saxonism was popular in England and the United States

  17. Americans saw it as an extension of Manifest Destiny, destined to spread overseas and spread its civilization to other people

  18. Josiah Strong

  19. Josiah Strong, popular minister, an advocate of Anglo-Saxonism • Tied Anglo-Saxonism to missionary ideas • Influenced many Americans • “The Anglo-Saxon is divinely commissioned to be, in peculiar sense, his brother’s keeper” • Strong convinced many to support imperialism, expand American power overseas

  20. Pacific Expansion

  21. The first American expansion was the American West • 1800s Americans looked for overseas markets and continued to look West • Before the era of imperialism, trade was already taking place with East Asia, ships went to China every year

  22. Commodore Perry and Japan

  23. American business leaders wanted to trade with Japan, would benefit the US • Japanese rulers had closed Japan to trade with the West, afraid contact would destroy their culture • Japan only traded with China and the Dutch • 1852, under pressure from Congress Millard Fillmore sent Commodore Perry to Japan

  24. The purpose of the expedition was to establish a coaling station in Japan and discuss treatment of shipwrecked sailors washing ashore in Japan • Fillmore sent Perry but Franklin Pierce was the president when Perry arrived in Japan • Perry arrived in Japan July 8, 1853 • Four US warships steamed into Yedo Bay

  25. The Japanese had not ever seen steamships • Were intimidated by US military technology

  26. Japanese Response to the Perry Expedition

  27. Japan began to make internal changes • They could not compete with modern Western technology and weapons • Signed a treaty on March 31, 1854 with the US • America’s use of force, impacted Japan • Began to remake Japanese society • Westernize Japan • By the 1890s Japan had a strong navy and had begun to build an empire in Asia

  28. Hawaii and American Settlers

  29. As trade with Asia grew the US became interested in Hawaii • Trade ships travelled from the US to China, made stops in Hawaii to take on provisions • 1820 an American missionary group from New England settled in Hawaii • American whaling ships used Hawaii as a base • The settlers built sugarcane plantations

  30. 1872, Hawaii experienced a recession • The US feared France or Great Britain would give aid to Hawaii • The US ratified a treaty with Hawaii in 1875, no tariff on sugar, when the treaty came up for renewal the Senate insisted Hawaiians give the US the rights to a naval base at Pearl Harbor

  31. Hawaii benefited from the trade treaty with the US • 1887 the plantation owners convinced the King to accept a new constitution that limited the monarch’s power, and increased the power of the planters • The McKinley Tariff eliminated the duty on sugar but subsidized the American sugar industry

  32. Hawaiian sugar was more expensive than domestic sugar, hurt the economy of Hawaii

  33. Queen Liluokalani

  34. 1891, Queen Liluokalani takes the Hawaiian throne • She was not happy with the power and influence the American settlers had in Hawaii • 1893, the Queen unsuccessfully attempts to obtain a new constitution and regain power • The economic and political problems prompted the settlers to attempt to overthrow the monarchy

  35. Aided by US Marines from the Boston the settlers forced the Queen to give up power • A provisional government was created that requested annexation by the US

  36. The Annexation of Hawaii

  37. President Cleveland was not a supporter of imperialism • Cleveland withdrew the annexation treaty from the Senate • The provisional government in Hawaii would not restore the Queen to power • The provisional government waited five years until an administration was in power in the US that supported Hawaiian annexation

  38. Latin America

  39. Latin America was a source of raw materials for US factories • Latin America bought most of it’s manufactured goods from Europe • American businessmen wanted to expand American influence into Latin America • James G. Blaine wanted to expand American influence in Latin America, proposed a conference with leaders from the US and Latin American nations, work towards peace and increase trade

  40. Pan-Americanism

  41. US and Latin America working together = Pan-Americanism • 1889, Pan-American Conference in Washington, D.C. • Blaine had two goals • 1. create a customs union • 2. create a system to resolve disputes peacefully

  42. The customs union would drop all tariffs and provide equal trade for all • This would increase consumption of American products in Latin America • The system for resolving disputes would stop Europe from becoming involved in Latin America • The Latin American delegates rejected Blaine’s proposals

  43. They did create the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics, known today as the Organization of American States (OAS) to settle disputes peacefully

  44. The United States Asserts Power in Foreign Affairs • Late 1800s support for imperialism and Anglo-Saxonism was growing among the American public and the government • The US began to assert power in foreign affairs • Germany attempted to take the Samoan Islands and the US threatened war • 3 US Sailors were killed by a mob in Chile, the US threatened war if reparations were not paid for the loss of life

  45. The US supported Venezuela in a border dispute with British Guiana, the British rejected a US ultimatum, the American newspapers and Congress called for war • The citizens and the government of the US were willing to go to war to protect US business investments overseas • Support for a modern navy grew

  46. Captain Alfred T. Mahan

  47. Captain Alfred T. Mahan published The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1660-1783 • Mahan argued that the great powers of the past had large merchant fleets that engaged in world trade • The US needed a large merchant fleet and a modern navy to protect it

  48. The US must expand territory in order to have bases overseas, coaling stations in distant regions to resupply ships

  49. Henry Cabot Lode and Albert J. Beveridge