Problems in sport: Reasons for using drugs and their effects IB Learning objectives: Examine reasons for using drugs in sport Discuss the effects of drug use in sport
Examine reasons for using drugs in sport • There has been an increasing use of drugs by top athletes over the last 20 years. • Athletes report that in most cases reasons relate to use of drugs for physical purposes – increasing strength, endurance and physique. • In some cases drugs are used to decrease fatigue and anxiety. Other psychological reasons include – coping with stress and protecting esteem. • Professionalization of sport and increased pressure to win may also contribute
Examine reasons for using drugs in sport • Finally social reasons can lead to drug use. Social learning theory very important here. • Younger athletes may well learn from more experienced/ accomplished athletes that drugs are worthwhile (Anshel (1998) and Newman (1981). • So why do athletes use drugs if there are negative consequences? • An application of game theory is used to explain why cyclists are still found to use the artificial hormone that stimulates red blood cells and therefore an increase of oxygen to the muscles.
Examine reasons for using drugs in sport Game Theory (Axelrod 1984) • The classic technique involved presenting a situation regarding options open to two prisoners. Respondents are asked to evaluate the situation from each prisoner’s perspective. • In the end it seems there is a win-win situation for both if they confess (Crane p 333) • When applied to cycling game theory presents the following • Cycling prohibits drug use . • Drugs are however effective and very difficult to detect (especially erythroprotein (EPO)) and the pay offs are great. • If you don’t use it when others are you are not competitive. • Once elite riders defect from the rules the rule abiding ones must too to stay in the game. What other psychological theories can also give us some insight into why athletes use drugs?
Discuss the Effects of drug use in sport • Most used are anabolic steroids a synthetic derivative of naturally occurring male testosterone which helps the body retain protein and therefore build muscles. • Effects are both psychological and physical. • ‘Stacking’ i.e using combinations of steroids , the damage can be irreversible and effects may not be detected for months to years after use.
Discuss the Effects of drug use in sport • Men often experience a ‘feminization effect’ – developing breasts, reduced sexual function, shrinking of the testicles. • Women a masculinization effect- facial hair, deepened voice, changes in menstruation. • Effects for both genders over time = acne, rapid weight gain, liver damage, heart attack, elevated cholesterol. • Steroids cause marked mood swings…from depression to ‘roid’ rage!! • May experience classic signs of addiction- cravings etc.
The Task: • The task is to prepare and give a presentation which is an in depth case study of on a high profile athlete that has taken performance enhancing drugs. • This is a minor assignment and the maximum group is three. • For information on theories and studies to refer to go to Crane p. 332-336, Hannibal p.138-141, Pearson p. 307-310. • Follow the rubric provided closely.
The case study presentation must include: • Discussion the Physical, Psychological and Social reasons for doping that relate to the athlete in your case study. • Examining your case study with reference to threeresearch studiesandthree theories (E.g. Game Theory, Social Learning Theory, Social Identity Theory, Achievement Goal Theory, Self-Efficacy Theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, Expectancy Theory, Team Cohesion). • Discussion of the biological andpsychological effects of drugs in relation to the case study. • Use of data triangulation in your research– interviews, news reports, statements from sporting governing bodies.
Examples of POSSIBLE Athletes FOR THE CASE STUDY • Lance Armstrong • Heidi Krieger • Lyle Alzado • Ben Johnson • And many more….