HW #20Aim: How effectively did early political leaders govern the new nation? p. 190 (Washington’s) to p. 200 Aim: Was the United States able to avoid “foreign entanglement”?
What were Washington’s reasons for issuing the Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793?
Proclamation of Neutrality 1793 • Washington forbid Americans to become actively involved in the war between England and France. • Causes • In 1793, France declared war against all monarchies. • France sent Citizen Genet to the U.S. to enlist American help against Britain. • The Reign of Terror turned many Americans (especially the Federalists) against the French.
The Jay Treaty 1794 • Doc. 1: • “Damn John Jay! Damn everyone who won’t damn John Jay!! Damn everyone that won’t light a candle in his window and sit up all night damning John Jay!!!” • Massachusetts graffiti 1795 • Doc 2: • “English papers were received here containing such accounts of your adjustment with the British administration as excited much uneasiness in the councils of this [the French] government…nothing will satisfy this government but a copy of the instrument itself, which as our ally it thinks itself entitled to…” • James Monroe’s Letter to John Jay (January, 1795)
Jay’s Treaty 1794 • Causes • Britain refused to evacuate their forts in the Northwest Territory. • The Canadian governor was encouraging the Indian tribes in the Northwest to attack American settlements. • British navy seized American ships engaged in trade with France. • Results • British agreed to leave the Northwest territory. • An Arbitration committee would decide the amount owed by American merchants to Britain and the amount owed to Americans for the seizure of their ships. • This treaty was viewed as a failure by Americans because the British refused to promise that they would stop interfering with American shipping.
The Quasi-War With France • Doc 3: • “…Finding the resentment of the People at the conduct of France too strong to be resisted, they [the Democratic-Republicans] have, in appearance, adopted their sentiments, and pretend that…if an Invasion should take place, it will be found that they will be among the first to defend it...” • George Washington to Secretary of War McHenry 1798 • Doc 4: • “…this Assembly does explicitly and peremptorily declare that it views the powers of the federal government as resulting from the compact to which the states are parties, as limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument [Constitution] constituting that compact, as no further valid than they are authorized by the grants enumerated in that compact; and that, in case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers not granted by said compact, the states…are duty bound to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil…the General Assembly does particularly protest against…the Alien and Sedition Acts, passed in the last session of Congress. • Virginia Resolutions 1798
Pinckney Treaty 1795 • Causes: • Spain refused to allow Americans to use the port of New Orleans (Spain hoped this would force the western farmers to secede from the U.S. and join the Spanish empire). • Results: • Spain granted Americans the “right of deposit” – the right to use the Mississippi River and to transfer their products at the port of New Orleans.
Washington’s Farewell Address 1796 • Doc 5: • “The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is, in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements [French treaty], let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop. • Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none, or a very remote, relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to out concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities.” What were Washington’s warnings?
Washington’s Warnings • Washington warned Americans to: • Avoid foreign alliances • This established a policy of isolation which was followed by succeeding Presidents. • Avoid political parties.