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Fluids PowerPoint Presentation

Fluids

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Fluids

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  1. Fluids • pH • conductivity • production mechanism • enzymes • hormones • important signals • isolation tools

  2. Blood

  3. pH: 7.35 – 7.45 • Constituents: • RBC – 45% • WBC – 0.7% • Platelets • Plasma – 54.3% • 92% Water • 8% Blood plasma proteins • Purification: centrifugation Human Blood

  4. Plasma Analytes: • glucose • amino acids • fatty acids • (dissolved or bound) • carbon dioxide • urea • lactic acid • Other Analytes: • Antibodies • Clotting Factors • Lipoprotein particles Human Blood

  5. Metabolic Profile: • sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), magnesium, creatinine, glucose, calcium. • Cholesterol levels: LDLand HDL cholesterol levels, as well as triglyceride levels. Human Blood

  6. blood cell shape – Sickle cell • low red cell number – anaemia • cell numbers and proportions – leukaemiaand other maliganacy precursors • coagulation – heamophilia • contamination– bacteria (sepsis) + viruses (viremia) • dissolvedO2, CO2, CO • bloodtypes/rhesus • pressure: systolic: 90-119, diastolic: 60-79 (120/80 as generalaverage) • pulse rate: 60-100 bpm Human Blood: Diagnostics

  7. Urine

  8. Urine

  9. pH: 4.6-8.0 (7.0 = normal) Turbidity: calcium phosphate or bacterial infection Colouration: dehydration! Specificgravity: ketoacidosis/hydrationtate Good N sourcewhendiluted Urine

  10. 95% water • urea 9.3 g/L • chloride 1.87 g/L, • sodium 1.17 g/L, • potassium 0.750 g/L, • creatinine 0.670 g/L • other dissolved ions, inorganic and organic compounds. • Urine is sterile until it reaches the urethra, where epithelial cells lining the urethra are colonized by facultatively anaerobic Gram negative rods and cocci Urine

  11. Saliva

  12. Saliva Amylase= starch -> maltose

  13. pH: 5-8 (7.4 = normal) • - low pH disrupts biofilms • - buffering capacity • - conductivity linked to ovulation • Water – 99.5% • Electrolytes • Mucus ( glycoproteins) • Antibacterial agents (thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide, secretoryimmunoglobulin A) • Enzymes (lipase, amylase) • Growth Factors • Cells + products Saliva

  14. Electrolytes: • 2–21 mmol/L sodium • (lower than blood plasma) • 10–36 mmol/L potassium (higher than plasma) • 1.2–2.8 mmol/L calcium (similar to plasma) • 0.08–0.5 mmol/L magnesium • 5–40 mmol/L chloride (lower than plasma) • 25 mmol/L bicarbonate (higher than plasma) • 1.4–39 mmol/L phosphate • Iodine (mmol/L usually higher than plasma, but dependent variable according to dietary iodine intake) Saliva