and Putin and Obama
V.V.Putin • Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician who has been the President of Russia since 7 May 2012. Putin previously served as president from 2000 to 2008 and as Prime Minister of Russia from 2008 to 2012. Putin also serves as chairman of United Russia and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union of Russia and Belarus. He became acting President on 31 December 1999, when president Boris Yeltsin resigned in a surprising move. Putin won the 2000 presidential election; in 2004 he was re-elected for a second term lasting until 7 May 2008.
Early political career • Saint Petersburg administration • In May 1990, Putin was appointed Mayor Sobchak's advisor on international affairs. On 28 June 1991, he was appointed head of the Committee for External Relations of the Saint Petersburg Mayor's Office, with responsibility for promoting international relations and foreign investments. The Committee also registered business ventures in Saint Petersburg. Less than one year later, Putin was investigated by a commission of the city legislative council. Commission deputies Marina Salye and YuryGladkov concluded that Putin understated prices and permitted the export of metals valued at $93 million, in exchange for foreign food aid that never arrived. Despite the commission's recommendation that Putin be fired, Putin remained head of the Committee for External Relations until 1996.
Moscow career • In 1996, Anatoly Sobchak lost the Saint Petersburg mayoral election to Vladimir Yakovlev. Putin was called to Moscow and in June 1996 became a Deputy Chief of the Presidential Property Management Department headed by Pavel Borodin. He occupied this position until March 1997. During his tenure Putin was responsible for the foreign property of the state and organized transfer of the former assets of the Soviet Union and Communist Party to the Russian Federation. • On 27 June 1997, at the Saint Petersburg Mining Institute Putin defended his Candidate of Science dissertation in economics, titled "The Strategic Planning of Regional Resources Under the Formation of Market Relations". • On 26 March 1997, President Boris Yeltsin appointed Putin deputy chief of Presidential Staff, which he remained until May 1998, and chief of the Main Control Directorate of the Presidential Property Management Department (until June 1998). His predecessor on this position was Alexei Kudrin and the successor was Nikolai Patrushev both future prominent politicians and Putin's associates.
Economic policy • In 2001, Putin, who has advocated liberal economic policies, introduced flat tax rate of 13%; the corporate rate of tax was also reduced from 35 percent to 24 percent ; Small businesses also get better treatment. The old system with high tax rates has been replaced by a new system where companies can choose either a 6 percent tax on gross revenue or a 15 percent tax on profits.Overall tax burden is lower in Russia than in most European countries. • A central concept in Putin's economic thinking was the creation of so-called National champions, vertically integrated companies in strategic sectors that are expected not only to seek profit, but also to "advance the interests of the nation". Examples of such companies include Gazprom, Rosneft and United Aircraft Corporation.
Third Presidency (since 2012) • On 4 March 2012 Putin won the 2012 Russian presidential elections in the first round, with 63.6 % of the vote. While extraordinary measures were taken to make the elections transparent, including the usage of webcams on the vast majority of polling stations, the vote was criticized by Russian opposition and some international bodies for perceived irregularities. • Putin was inaugurated in the Kremlin on 7 May 2012.
BarackObama • BarackHusseinObamaisthe 44th andcurrentPresidentoftheUnitedStates.HeisthefirstAfricanAmericantoholdtheoffice. BorninHonolulu, Hawaii, ObamaisagraduateofColumbiaUniversityandHarvardLawSchool, wherehewasthepresidentoftheHarvardLawReview. HewasacommunityorganizerinChicagobeforeearninghislawdegree. HeworkedasacivilrightsattorneyinChicagoandtaughtconstitutionallawattheUniversityofChicagoLawSchoolfrom 1992 to 2004. Heservedthreetermsrepresentingthe 13th DistrictintheIllinoisSenatefrom 1997 to 2004.
U.S. Senator: 2005–2008 • Maincareer :UnitedStatesSenatecareerofBarackObama • ObamawassworninasasenatoronJanuary 3, 2005,becoming theonlySenatememberoftheCongressionalBlackCaucus.CQWeeklycharacterizedhimasa "loyalDemocrat" basedonanalysisofallSenatevotesin 2005–2007. ObamaannouncedonNovember 13, 2008, thathewouldresignhisSenateseatonNovember 16, 2008, beforethestartofthelame-ducksession, tofocusonhistransitionperiodforthepresidency. • Legislation Seealso: ListofbillssponsoredbyBarackObamaintheUnitedStatesSenate
Economicpolicy • ObamapresentshisfirstweeklyaddressasPresidentoftheUnitedStatesonJanuary 24, 2009, discussingtheAmericanRecoveryandReinvestmentActof 2009. • OnFebruary 17, 2009, ObamasignedtheAmericanRecoveryandReinvestmentActof 2009, a $787 billioneconomicstimuluspackageaimedathelpingtheeconomyrecoverfromthedeepeningworldwiderecession. Theactincludesincreasedfederalspendingforhealthcare, infrastructure, education, varioustaxbreaksandincentives, anddirectassistancetoindividuals, whichisbeingdistributedoverthecourseofseveralyears.