Drugs/Alcohol/Cigarettes Jennifer Musante
Introduction When you are pregnant, it is important that you watch what you put into your body. Consumption of illegal drugs, alcohol and cigarettes is not safe for the unborn baby or for the mother.
MarijuanaMarijuana is a green, brown, or gray mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the hemp plant POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON MOTHER POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON THE PREGNANCY Heavy usage of marijuana when mixed with tobacco may be associated with Smaller babies at birth (low birth weight) Increased risk of premature (early)birth Increased risk of miscarriage Reduced supply of oxygen to the baby through the placenta Associated with increased risk of SIDs death and early health problems such as asthma in babies and young children • Anxiety • Paranoia • Memory loss and concentration problems • Depression • Chest Infections and related illnesses • Heart disease and related illnesses • Cancer
CocaineCocaine is a powerful stimulant drug that comes in a white powder form. It can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected. Crack is cocaine that has been chemically treated to produce crystals or rocks which are smoked. POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON MOTHER POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON THE PREGNANCY Cocaine causes High Blood Pressure which may cause the following: Increased risk of miscarriage Increased risk of premature(early) birth Placental abruption (afterbirth coming away from the womb) Reduced supply of oxygen to the baby through the placenta Smaller babies at birth (low birth weight) Baby may die before birth- stillbirth Baby may have abnormalities Baby is at a greater risk of SIDs death • Increased heart rate and blood pressure increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and death • Irritability and paranoia which may cause the user to lose touch with reality and experience hallucinations • Damage to the inside of the nose from snorting • Abscesses from poor injecting practices • Sexually transmitted infections- Users may feel more confident, lowering inhibitions and may put themselves at risk of sharing needles and having unprotected sex • Decreased appetite with associated weight loss • Death by overdose
Heroin Heroin is an opiate drug which is derived from the opium poppy plant. It is usually brownish white and most users either smoke or inject it and it is extremely addictive POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON MOTHER POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON THE PREGNANCY Low Birth Weight- Baby may be unable to grow in the womb and may be born smaller than other babies for its gestational age Prematurity – Baby may be born too early and may find it difficult to survive Heroin use in pregnancy may lead to a miscarriage or stillbirth (baby dies before birth) Withdrawals- Baby may get withdrawals from heroin once delivered and may require treatment Sudden Infant Death- Baby is at a greater risk of a SIDs death • Decreased appetite with associated weight loss • Infectious Diseases like Hepatitis C, B and HIV can be transmitted through the sharing of used needles, cooking spoons, pipes, filters and syringes • Abscesses and infections may occur due to “dirty” gear and works • High risk of developing a Deep Venous Thrombosis (clot) especially when injecting into the groin • Heroin is expensive and will lead to money problems. • Death by overdose
PCP & LSDHallucinogens are a family of drugs that affect sensory perception, mood and thought processes. Hallucinogen use can cause perceptions of things that are not actually there, or cause distorted perceptions of real objects and events. POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON THE MOTHER POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON THE PREGNANCY birth defects to long-term developmental effects after birth Brain damage, learning problems, and poor muscle control premature birth and respiratory distress for the infant being born with an addiction to PCP and going through withdrawal symptoms • users can behave violently, which may harm herself and the baby • dangerous changes in blood pressure, heart rate and respiration, and decreased awareness of pain • Large doses may lead to coma or death • fever, dilated pupils, tremors, nausea, chills and numbness • impaired judgment (of distance, speed, time, etc.) and altered memory • problems with concentrating and communicating
MethamphetamineStimulant drug manufactured with poisonous chemicals, such as drain cleaner, battery acid and anhydrous ammonia. POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON THE MOTHER POSSIBLE EFFECTS ON THE PREGNANCY The use of speed can cause the baby to get less oxygen, which can lead to low birth weight premature labor, miscarriage, and placental abruption Babies can be born addicted to methamphetamine and suffer withdrawal symptoms that include tremors, sleeplessness, muscle spasms, and feeding difficulties Learning disabilities Physical disabilities • chemically related to amphetamine, which causes the heart rate of the mother and baby to increase • anxiety, increased blood pressure and heart rate, exhaustion, poor judgment, poor personal hygiene, and mental disorders such as psychosis and depression • decreased appetite and increased exposure to dangerous people and environments
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome What Is NAS? • NAS is a syndrome comprising various symptoms of withdrawal sometimes experienced by opiate-dependent infants • About half of babies born to methadone using women will experience NAS, usually within 72 hours of birth, although some infants won’t experience symptoms for up to four weeks after birth • Group of problems a baby experiences when withdrawing from exposure to narcotics Symptoms of NAS include the following: • Fever • Vomiting • Not eating or sleeping • Trembling/restlessness • The symptoms of NAS can be treated and the baby can be made more comfortable with medications such as benzodiazepines or opiates. Although NAS-born babies may lag slightly during the first year of life, after the first year, development is normal.
Opiates Babies who are born to OxyContin-addicted women may experience neonatal abstinence syndromes (NAS), and opiate drug use during pregnancy greatly increases the risks of obstetric complications or miscarriage. • constipation, nausea, sedation, and sexual dysfunction • Fatal overdose
Opiates • Babies born to mothers taking methadone or OxyContin or other dangerous drugs will frequently have a condition called neonatal abstinence syndrome • many babies become dependent on the drug and suffer painful withdrawal symptoms when they are withdrawn from the drug.
Alcohol Drinking during pregnancy (even beer and wine) can cause serious problems for your baby such as: • Miscarriage • Stillbirth • Low birth rate • Mental retardation • Learning problems as they grow • Medical problems ,like babies with bad hearts • Drinking heavily is even more dangerous and can cause Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome • Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy. • Many babies with FAS are mentally retarded, others have heart problems
Stop drinking Now • There is no know safe amount of alcohol when you’re pregnant, and there is no safe time to drink if you’re pregnant • All types of alcohol - even wine, wine coolers, and beer – can harm your developing baby • If you’re pregnant and drinking, you can still help your unborn baby if you stop drinking now
Cigarettes When you smoke, so does your baby! Risks involved while smoking during pregnancy: • miscarriage (when a baby dies early in your pregnancy) • stillbirth (when you give birth to a baby that has died) • Pre-term (your baby can be born too soon and too small) • Pre-term babies are often sick when they are born • Breathing problems such as SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome –when a baby dies while it is sleeping)
Cigarette Smoking There are many harmful substances contained in cigarettes. Nicotine, carbon monoxide and cyanide are thought to have the greatest adverse effects, reducing blood flow and oxygen to the unborn baby. Many pregnancy complications are associated with cigarette smoking. These include: • Miscarriage • Low birth weight- Smoking reduces the amount of oxygen and nutrients that get to your baby which may cause then to be smaller than they should be • Premature delivery • Stillbirth • SIDs
Second Hand Smoke -pregnancy • Being around smokers can harm your baby • Exposure to secondhand smoke increased a non-smoking pregnant woman's chances of having a stillborn by 23 percent, and increased the risk of delivering a baby with birth defects by 13 percent
Second hand smoke around infants and small children • Secondhand smoke can be extremely dangerous for babies. • weakens their lungs, makes them more prone to ear infections, and doubles the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). • Cigarettes smoke spreads harmful chemicals, including nicotine and carbon monoxide, all over your home. If you light up in one room, the smoke will be detectable in the entire house within minutes, and that includes the baby's room. The chemicals and particles that make secondhand smoke so dangerous will immediately stick to just about everything in the house, including carpets, walls, furniture, and even stainless steel. Over the next few weeks and months, these contaminants will be slowly released back into the air — the same air that your baby breathes. 5
Quitting can be hard • Put the cigarette down between puffs. Or take a drag, then put it out • Put ashtrays out of sight. Out of sight could mean out of mind • Speak with your Doctor • Cut down by one cigarette per day and in 3 weeks you will have cut out a pack per day • Call American Cancer Society 1-800-227-2345
Getting Help • Get prenatal care early • If you don’t get help with your drug problem early in pregnancy (first 6 months) you risk having social services or even the courts involved • Find someone you can trust to ask for help
Resources • National Drug Help Hotline 1-800-662-4357 • National Alcohol and Drug Dependence Hopeline1-800-622-2255 • Alcohol and drug helpline at 1-800-821-4357
References • http://www.americanpregnancy.org/pregnancyhealth/illegaldrugs.html • http://www.acde.org/parent/Pregnant.htm • http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2011/03/07/pregnant-women-secondhand-smoke-can-harm-your-unborn-baby/ • Baby basics your month by month guide to a healthy pregnancy • http://www.babycenter.com/404_how-can-i-protect-my-baby-when-theres-a-smoker-in-the-house_1430505.bc 5 • http://www.drugs.ie/resources/publications/guides_and_support_booklets/ • http://www.casapalmera.com/articles/the-facts-and-effects-of-methamphetamine-addiction-and-pregnancy/ • http://www.heroin-detox.org/opiates_pregnancy.htm
Pregnant women can take drugs without having to worry about harmful side effects Myth • When a woman is pregnant, any drugs taken can play a very harmful and dangerous role. These drugs, prescription drugs included, are able to enter the developing fetus by breaking through the placenta barrier. Breast feeding is also dangerous for the baby if drugs are taken. • Drugs affect an unborn child as much or more than the mother. Drug use during pregnancy can cause the baby to die or be born too early. It can damage the baby's mind and body
Cocaine abuse has no effect on the brainThe word “cocaine” refers to the drug in both a powder (cocaine) and crystal (crack) form Myth • Cocaine interferes with the way your brain processes chemicals that create feelings of pleasure, so you need more and more of the drug just to feel normal. People who become addicted to cocaine start to lose interest in other areas of their life, like school, friends, and sports
Marijuana is not addictive Myth • About 9 percent of people who use marijuana become dependent on it. The number increases to about one in six among those who start using it at a young age, and to 25 to 50 percent among daily users. Marijuana increases dopamine, which creates the good feelings or “high” associated with its use. A user may feel the urge to smoke marijuana again, and again, and again to re-create that experience. • People who use marijuana may also experience a withdrawal syndrome when they stop using the drug. It is similar to what happens to tobacco smokers when they quit—people report being irritable, having sleep problems, and weight loss—effects which can last for several days to a few weeks after drug use is stopped. Relapse is common during this period, as users also crave the drug to relieve these symptoms.
Smoking harms only the lungs Myth • Smoking harms every organ in the body
Adolescents are more likely to become addicted to tobacco then adults Fact • An ingredient in tobacco, acetaldehyde works with nicotine in addicting adolescents in particular to tobacco • The pleasure effects of nicotine only last a few minutes
Nicotine is the only harmful part of tobacco • Myth Nicotine is only one of more than 4,000 chemicals, many of which are poisonous, found in the smoke from tobacco products. Smokeless tobacco products also contain many toxins, as well as high levels of nicotine. Many of these other ingredients are things we would never consider putting in our bodies, like tar, carbon monoxide, acetaldehyde, and nitrosamines. Tar causes lung cancer, emphysema, and bronchial diseases. Carbon monoxide causes heart problems, which is one reason why smokers are at high risk for heart disease.
What is in that cigarette Here are a few of the chemicals in tobacco smoke, and other places they are found: • Acetone – found in nail polish remover • Acetic Acid – an ingredient in hair dye • Ammonia – a common household cleaner • Arsenic – used in rat poison • Benzene – found in rubber cement • Butane – used in lighter fluid • Cadmium – active component in battery acid • Carbon Monoxide – released in car exhaust fumes • Formaldehyde – embalming fluid • Hexamine – found in barbecue lighter fluid • Lead – used in batteries • Napthalene – an ingredient in moth balls • Methanol – a main component in rocket fuel • Nicotine – used as insecticide • Tar – material for paving roads • Toluene - used to manufacture paint
Smoking During Pregnancy • Smoking in pregnancy accounts for an estimated 20 to 30 percent of low-birth weight babies, up to 14 percent of preterm deliveries, and some 10 percent of all infant deaths. Even apparently healthy, full-term babies of smokers have been found to be born with narrowed airways and reduced lung function.7
Smokeless tobacco products are a known cause of cancer, and are not a safe alternative to cigarettes. Fact • Smokeless tobacco causes significant health risks and is not a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. It contains the same addictive chemical (nicotine) that is in cigarettes, which can lead to addiction and dependence.1 The amount of nicotine absorbed from smokeless tobacco is 3 to 4 times the amount delivered by a cigarette.2 • Key Facts About Smokeless Tobacco Use: • Smokeless tobacco contains 28 cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) or known causes of human cancer. It also increases the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas.3 • There are two main types of smokeless tobacco used in the U.S., chewing tobacco and snuff. Chewing tobacco comes in loose leaf, plug and twist form. Snuff is finely ground tobacco that can be dry, moist, or in bag-like pouches. Most smokeless tobacco users place the product in the cheek or between their gum and cheek, suck on the tobacco and spit out or swallow the juices, which is why smokeless tobacco is often referred to as spit tobacco.4
Did you know that within 20 minutes of quitting smoking your blood pressure and pulse begin to return to normal? 24 hours of quitting smoking your chance of having a heart attack decreases. One month after quitting your lungs start to regenerate normal functioning cells. One year after quitting your risk of heart disease is half that of a smokers. Ten years after quitting your risk of death from lung cancer is the same as that of a non-smoker.
alcohol • Alcohol can hurt the brain before the birth. It can slow the unborn baby’s growth and give him other problems • Children who have been harmed by alcohol before birth can have problems with health, learning, and behavior • Alcohol can affect your baby’s development all throughout pregnancy
Alcohol facts • A women’s blood absorbs more alcohol from a drink than a man’s does. The same size drink will affect you more than a man • There is the same amount of alcohol in a can of beer, a bottle of wine cooler, a glass of wine, and a shot of hard liquor • Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most preventable kind of mental retardation
Cigarettes affect babies • Your baby needs the oxygen in clean air. This oxygen is passed to his body by your blood. • Every time you puff on a cigarette, carbon monoxide and nicotine get into your blood. • The blood carries those substances to your unborn baby • Nicotine makes his heart beat faster; carbon monoxide takes the place of oxygen in his blood • Babies of smokers often are smaller than pother babies b/c they get less oxygen • They may have more colds, lung illness, and ear aches than other children