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Post-War International Institutions

Post-War International Institutions

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Post-War International Institutions

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  1. Post-War International Institutions

  2. Foundation of the U.N. • June 26, 1945 • replace the League of Nations • based in New York

  3. Main Organs or Divisions • Secretariat and Secretary General • 5 year terms, 2x, rotating regions • selected by GA on recommendation from SC • Kofi Annan at present • General Assembly • includes all member nations, most poor, little real power • passes non-binding resolutions • Security Council • 5 permanent members--with vetoes • US, France, Britain, China (since ‘71 PRC), USSR (since ‘91, Russia) • 10 elected from regional groupings in GA to 2 year terms • Chapter 7 UN Charter grants SC right to authorize use of force “to maintain or restore international peace”

  4. Main organs, contd • Economic and Social Council • 18 positions elected by GA each year, 3 year terms • oversees specialized agencies concerned with development, health, trade, etc. • International Court of Justice • 15 judges from 15 countries, selected by General Assembly and Security Council • resolve disputes between states--territorial, or conduct

  5. Security Council track record on using force • 1950 SC authorizes use of force against N. Korea • Russia not present • subsequently, SC a captive of the Cold War • post cold war--a “new World Order?” • SC authorizes force to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait 1990 • but not to invade Iraq in 2003

  6. UN is not a “world government” • no direct elections--members are states, not citizens • no standing army

  7. Security Council Reform • add new permanent members? • Japan, India, Germany, Brazil, maybe Nigeria • resentments and problems

  8. U.S. and the UN • U.S. pays about 20% of UN budget • since the 1980s, derelict--paid in 2001 • Kofi Annan’s reforms • U.S. calls for greater say on spending • Oil for food scandal • Bolton nomination

  9. World Bank • with IMF, part of “Bretton Woods” system • originally for reconstruction of Europe, but now development everywhere • weighted voting, American boss • projects often problematic--dams, airports, highways, power plants, etc. • recently some changes in outlook • Conflicted interests

  10. International Monetary Fund • short-term loans to governments to stabilize currencies • also weighted voting • loans come with strings • recipient must live within means—”austerity programs” • some changes here too--can consider environment, democratization, education

  11. European Union • step by step--beginning in 50’s, cooperation in coal and steel, atomic energy, trade • countering destructive nationalism • now 25 countries--worlds biggest and richest block • common currency, free trade and movement

  12. EU

  13. Institutions of the EU • Council of Ministers • contains ministers of member states--sets guidelines • European Commission • the bureaucracy which executes the guidelines • European Parliament • now directly elected, and with Council of Ministers, oversee European Commission

  14. United States of Europe? • a small rapid reaction force by 2007 • failure of Constitutional ratifications

  15. Future of Nation States • erosion from above • --UN, EU, NAFTA, WTO, • erosion from below • --”subnational” ethnicites