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Cyst nematodes

Cyst nematodes. Cyst Nematodes. Heterodera Globodera Punctodera Cactodera Dolichodera Afenestra Brevicephalodera. Etymology Heterodera heteros = other, different deras = skin, body wall Globodera globus = round deras = skin, body all. Common names & Scientific names.

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Cyst nematodes

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  1. Cyst nematodes Walia CCSHAU

  2. Cyst Nematodes • Heterodera • Globodera • Punctodera • Cactodera • Dolichodera • Afenestra • Brevicephalodera Etymology Heterodera heteros = other, different deras = skin, body wall Globodera globus = round deras = skin, body all Walia CCSHAU

  3. Common names & Scientific names • Cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae • Soybean cyst nematode H. glycines • Pigeon pea cyst nematode H. cajani • Maize cyst nematode H. zeae • Clover cyst nematode H. trifolii • Brassica cyst nematode H. cruciferae Walia CCSHAU

  4. Historical • 1859 – First report of a cyst nematode from Germany, as causal organism of “Rubenmuditkeit” (Beet tiredness) • 1871 – Schmidt named it Heterodera schachtii • Other forms of cyst nematodes discovered on pea, potato, cereals - mostly in Germany • 1940 – Franklin separated five species • H. schachtii, H. goettingiana, H. rostochiensis, H. major, H. punctata • Round cysts transferred to Globodera Walia CCSHAU

  5. Diagnosis Heterodera • Mature female and Cyst • Lemon-shaped with short neck and terminal cone (vulval cone), turning into a hard wall, brown or black in colour, vulva terminal, anus dorsally sub-terminal, vulval fenestration present, ambifenestrate or bifenestrate, underbridge and bullae often present, most eggs retained inside the body, some may be laid in gelatinous matrix • Male • About 1 mm, vermiform, stylet and oesophagus well-developed, tail end twisted, without bursa, spicules robust, gubernaculum simple. • Second-stage juvenile • Body slender, about 400-500 µm long, cephalic sclerotisation and stylet robust than in root-knot nematode, oesophageal glands overlap intestine ventrally, tail with a prominent hyaline portion Walia CCSHAU

  6. Diagnosis Walia CCSHAU

  7. Diagnosis Walia CCSHAU

  8. Diagnosis - Fenestration Bifenestrate Ambifenestrate Y Y Y Y Y Y y Walia CCSHAU

  9. Vulval cone – Bullae and Underbridge Walia CCSHAU

  10. Vulval cone Walia CCSHAU

  11. Diagnosis Globodera • Mature female and Cyst • Spherical with a short neck, terminal portion not forming a cone, vulva terminal, vulval fenestra circumfenestrate, underbridge, bullae rarely present, anus dorsally sub-terminal, no anal fenestra. • Male and Second-stage juveniles • As in Heterodera Walia CCSHAU

  12. Systematic Position • Phylum Nematoda • Class Secernentea • Order Tylenchida • Suborder Tylenchina • Superfamily Tylenchoidea • Family Heteroderidae • Subfamily Heteroderinae • Genera Heterodera, Globodera Walia CCSHAU

  13. Biology • Sedentary endoparasite • Cyst containing eggs remain in soil during off-season • Mostly hatching occurs in response to host root exudates • Infective stage – Second-stage juvenile • Prefer meristematic zone for penetration • Establish special feeding areas (Syncytia) in vascular tissues • Further grow to adults, body changes from vermiform to lemon-shaped gradually, posterior part emerges out of root • Adult males become vermiform, are coiled inside J4 cuticle, and finally come out into soil after rupturing cuticle. • Females lay eggs inside their body, turn brown (cyst) and fall into the soil Walia CCSHAU

  14. Life cycle • Major differences from • Root-knot nematode • No spike tailed stages • Stylet present in J3 and J4 • Posterior portions of J4 and females protrude out of roots • Reproduction usually sexual • Egg laying inside the body of female • Female forms cyst after egg laying Walia CCSHAU

  15. Development • No spike-tailed stages • Stylet present in J3, J4 Walia CCSHAU

  16. Development Walia CCSHAU

  17. DevelopmentCyst nematodes v/s Root-knot nematodes Walia CCSHAU

  18. Life cycle stages Walia CCSHAU

  19. Heterodera – Females and Cysts Walia CCSHAU

  20. Globodera – Females and Cysts Walia CCSHAU

  21. Histopathology • J2 become sedentary after penetration, head located near vascular tissues • Enzymatic secretions lead to the formation of syncytia • Syncytium involves xylem, phloem, pericycle, endodermis • Partial cell wall dissolution takes place to result in a big multicellular cytoplasmic mass (syncytium) Walia CCSHAU

  22. Histopathology Walia CCSHAU

  23. Histopathology Walia CCSHAU

  24. Histopathology - Comparative Walia CCSHAU

  25. Cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae • First report from Germany by Kuhn in 1874 • Nomenclature changed from Heterodera schachtii – H. schachtii subsp. major – H. major – H. avenae (Wollenweber, 1924) • First report from India by Vasudeva in 1958 from Rajasthan Walia CCSHAU

  26. Cereal Cyst Nematode - CCN • Distribution • Europe, Australia, Russian states, India, Pakistan • India • Rajasthan, Haryana, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh • Hosts • Wheat, Barley (Molya disease) • Oats Walia CCSHAU

  27. CCN - Biology • Lemon-shaped cyst, each containing ca. 400 eggs formed during march/April, remain dormant in soil till November/December • Hatching coincides with wheat sowing (Nov/Dec) at 16-18 C • Root exudates do not play any role in hatching • Only 50% eggs hatch in first year • White females can be seen on roots during Jan/Feb Walia CCSHAU

  28. CCN - Symptoms • Stunted growth in patches • Chlorosis when crop is 1-2 months old • Reduced tillering • Culms become thinner and weaker • Earheads fewer and bear fewer grains • Roots become bushy, having swellings at the sites of penetration • White glistening females appear during Jan/Feb on the swellings Walia CCSHAU

  29. CCN – Above-ground Symptoms Walia CCSHAU

  30. CCN – Below-ground Symptoms Walia CCSHAU

  31. CCN – Crop losses • In Rajasthan • 8.2 to 28.8% yield loss • Rs 40 million in wheat • Rs 30 millions in barley • In Haryana • 8.9 to 95.3% increase in yield with chemical treatments • Disease more severe in light soils • 45–48% losses when Pi = 6 eggs per g soil Walia CCSHAU

  32. CCN - Management • Cultural practices • Crop rotation with mustard, chickpea, coriander, cumin, fenugreek, carrots for 1-2 years • One year rotation – 80% increase in wheat yield • Two year rotation - 135% increase in wheat yield • Two – three deep summer ploughings • Early sowing of wheat by a fortnight Walia CCSHAU

  33. CCN - Management • Crop rotation • With mustard, gram, fenugreek, cumin, fennel, carrots Walia CCSHAU

  34. CCN – Crop Rotation Fenugreek - Wheat Wheat - Wheat Wheat - Wheat Oats - Wheat Walia CCSHAU

  35. CCN - Management • Chemical • Apply carbofuran @ 1-2 kg a.i./ha at sowing Untreated Carbofuran Walia CCSHAU

  36. CCN -Management • Resistant varieties • Wheat – Raj MR -1; Katyil (Australia) • Barley – Raj Kiran, C – 164, BH – 393 • Integrated • Deep summer ploughing + Non-host (mustard) or resistant variety Walia CCSHAU

  37. Potato cyst nematodesGlobodera rostochiensis, G. pallida • First report from Germany by Kuhn • Wollenweber 1923 named it Heterodera rostochiensis • Bifurcated into two species – H. rostochiensis and H. pallida mainly on the basis of colour of females • Transferred to genus Globodera by Mulvey and Stone (1975) • First report from India by Jones in 1961 Walia CCSHAU

  38. Potato cyst nematode - PCN • Distribution • Vastly distributed in Europe, south America, north America, Russia, south Africa, India • In India – Nilgiri hills, Palni hills (on the trijunction of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka), only in about 4000 ha • Hosts • Main host potato • Tomato and brinjal can also be attacked Walia CCSHAU

  39. PCN - Biology • Cysts contain 200-500 eggs • Depends upon potato root diffusates for hatching • Eggs continue hatching for 8 years; only 30-40% eggs hatch in first year • Basically temperate climate species • Spread through soil adhering to tubers Walia CCSHAU

  40. PCN – Colour transition in cysts Walia CCSHAU

  41. PCN - Symptoms • Small patches of poorly growing plants • Foliage may show wilting during hot day time, recover by evening • Plants remain stunted, foliage turns yellow from older leaves, which wither away gradually • Only a tuft of green leaves remain at top • Root system poorly developed • Infected plants can be pulled out easily due to poor anchorage • Tuber formation drastically reduced in number ad size Walia CCSHAU

  42. PCN – Crop damage Walia CCSHAU

  43. PCN – Pathotypes, Crop losses • Pathotypes • G. rostocheinsis - Ro1, Ro2, Ro3, Ro4, Ro5, • G. pallida - Pa1, Pa2, Pa3 • Crop losses • In India, 53-66% tuber yield reduction in badly infested fields • In severely infested fields, yields may be even less than the tubers used for planting Walia CCSHAU

  44. PCN - Management • Cultural practices • Crop rotation with cabbage, cauliflower, radish, carrots, beans strawberry etc. • Ban on potato cultivation in infested fields for 4-5 years in many countries • Resistant varieties • Using resistant genes from Solanum vernei and Solanum andigena, resistant potato varieties are available • In India, Kufri Swarna is planted in about 40% area infested with PCN in Nilgiris Walia CCSHAU

  45. PCN –Crop Rotation Walia CCSHAU

  46. PCN - Management • Chemical • Mandatory application of Fensulfothion for 3 years (@ 30, 15 and 7.5 kg a.i./ha) supplied free under Indo-German Nilgiri Development Project • Carbofuran or aldicarb @ 2 kg a.i./ha at sowing • Legislative • Domestic quarantine against PCN in Nilgiris since 1971 under DIP act • Integrated Walia CCSHAU

  47. PCN - Effect of Nematicidal treatments Walia CCSHAU

  48. Other important cyst nematode in India • Pigeonpea cyst nematode, Heterodera cajani • First reported from India in 1971 • Vastly distributed almost throughout India • Attacks kharif pulses – pigeonpea, green gram, black gram, moth bean, cowpea; besides Sesame, dhaincha, cluster bean • Active during kharif season only • Multivoltine • Females lay eggs in eggmasses also Walia CCSHAU

  49. Other important cyst nematode in India • Maize cyst nematode, Heteroderazeae • First reported from India in 1971 • Prevalent throughout the country in maize growing areas • Multivoltine • Rice cyst nematode, Heteroderaoryzicola • First reported from India in 1978 • Restricted to rice in Kerala, Goa Walia CCSHAU

  50. Other Economically Important Species • Sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii • First cyst nematode to be discovered • Attacks several crops belonging to families Crucifereae and Chenopodiaceae • Fist soil fumigation experiments using CS2 tried against this nematode • Concept of trap crops first tried against this nematode Walia CCSHAU

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