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Black music of the ‘60s, part 1: PowerPoint Presentation
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Black music of the ‘60s, part 1:

Black music of the ‘60s, part 1:

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Black music of the ‘60s, part 1:

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  1. Motown Black music of the ‘60s, part 1:

  2. Black music in the ‘60s • After first crossover artists, black rock follows different paths • Doo-wop influenced pop-rock style of Brill Building • Closer affiliation to R&B • R&B charts discontinued in 1963 • Black music of period called soul

  3. What is Soul? • Examples: • Edwin Starr, War • The Shangri-Las, Remember • The Supremes, Stop (in the name of Love) • Sam Cooke, You Send Me

  4. What Is Soul? • Umbrella term for a number of different styles • R&B + pop rock = Motown (Detroit) • Gospel + R&B/rock + pop = Stax (Memphis) • R&B + jump blues + gospel = Chicago, Philadelphia sound

  5. Berry Gordy • Owned jazz record store • Starts own record company - Tamla Records - in 1959 • 1960 changes name to Motown • aka “Hitsville, U.S.A.” • Aim: produce black music accessible to mainstream pop audience

  6. Berry Gordy • Hands-on producer, manager • Relies on other producers as well • Smokey Robinson • Holland-Dozier-Holland (HDH) • Produced 28 hits for label • 17 straight hits for The Supremes • Control of image, behavior of acts

  7. The Motown “Process” • Songs written by professional songwriters • Recorded by several Motown artists with different arrangements, producers • Funk Brothers – Motown house band • Gordy chooses version to be released

  8. The Motown Sound • aka “The Sound of Young America” • thick, “wall-of-sound” textures • 8-beat rock style beat • AABA, pop forms • Frequent appearance of hook - “in the first groove”

  9. The Motown Sound • End-weighted • Tag line provides ending • Simple, appealing, non-challenging lyrics • Ex. The Temptations – My Girl

  10. My Girl • Intro establishes rhythmic foundation • 2 bar bass riff starts on “and” of 4 • Guitar riff reinforces rock style beat 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + x x x x x x • snaps on backbeat • Lightly syncopated vocals

  11. My Girl • Verse chorus form • Transition: I'd guess you'd say • Leads to chorus = hook • End weighted • Melodic saturation

  12. Marvin Gaye • Hired by Motown as drummer • Then singer and arranger • Becomes biggest star of Motown label • Songs in the Motown style, but sound somewhat different

  13. Marvin Gaye - What’s Goin’ On (1971) • Ground breaking song/LP • Commentary on racism, Vietnam war • New for Motown • Sixteen-beat style beat • Rock style beat with beats subdivided again • Even more possibilities for syncopation, rhythmic variety

  14. Marvin Gaye and Tammy Terrell - Ain’t Nothin’ Like The Real Thing, Baby 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 1 + 2 I’ve got your pic-ture han-gin’ on my wallO X X X X X X X X X X 1 e + a 2 e + a 3 e + a 4 e + a 1e + a 2 I’ve got your pic- ture han-gin’ on my wallOO X OX OX O XO XO O O X X X OXO X

  15. Marvin Gaye - What’s Goin’ On • Sixteen-beat rhythmic foundation • Clear jazz influences in sax solos, relaxed syncopation • Still has “Motown sound” - thick textures • But very topical, political lyrics

  16. Other Important Motown Artists • Smokey Robinson (VP of Motown) and the Miracles • You Really Got A Hold On Me; Baby, Baby • Four Tops • I Can’t Help Myself • Martha and the Vandellas • Heat Wave, Dancin’ In The Streets • Jackson Five • Stevie Wonder