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Texas Political Culture

Texas Political Culture

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Texas Political Culture

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  1. Texas Political Culture

  2. Texas Political Culture • Texas culture stresses • Individualism • Conservatism • Death Penalty • Welfare • Environment • Gambling

  3. Texas Political Culture • Factors Contributing • Southern Conservatism • Old West Individualism • Hispanic Culture • Northern Migration • Immigration • Urbanization

  4. Historical Influences on Texas Politics • From Republic to State • Independence 1836 • Statehood 1845 • Slavery delayed admission • Texas retained ownership of public land because US refused to assume debt • This land was rich in mineral resources such as oil and gas • Contributed to Permanent University Fund

  5. The Civil War and Reconstruction • Sam Houston • Pro-Union • Resigned from US Senate • Ran for Governor • Refused US troops • Secessionist Convention • Voted to leave Union • Reconstruction • Republican EJ Davis • Rampant corruption • Anti-Republican attitudes until Ronald Reagan Gov EJ Davis

  6. End of Reconstruction • Southern Democrats • Former Confederates allowed to vote in 1873 • Elected Democrat Richard Coke as Governor in 1874 • EJ Davis refused to vacate • Democrats rewrote Texas Constitution • Texas Grange • Legacy of Reconstruction • All White Democratic Party • Poll Taxes • White Primaries • Small predominately African-American Republican Party Gov Richard Coke

  7. Progressives and Populists • Governor James Hogg • Reform Candidate • Support from East Texas Farmers • Regulated Special Interests • Governor James Pa Ferguson • Farmer and Progressive • Impeached and Convicted • Governor Miriam Ma Ferguson • Two Governors for Price of One • “If English Good Enough for Jesus, it’s Good Enough for School Children of Texas” Gov Miriam Ferguson

  8. Democrats and Al Smith • Al Smith was the 1928 Democratic Presidential Nominee • Catholic • Wet • Texans cast votes for Republican Hoover • Protestant • Dry Dem Al Smith

  9. W. Lee “Pappy” O’Daniel • Host of Radio Program • Flour Salesman • Light Crust Doughboys • Platform • Ten Commandments • Golden Rule • Old Age Pensions • Reformer • Never paid Poll Tax • Did not believe any politician worth $1.75 • O Brother Where Art Thou characters drawn from “Pappy” • Broom of Reform • Represented the “Little Man” Gov W Lee “Pappy” O’Daniel

  10. Governor Allen Shivers • Fought to keep 10 miles of the Gulf of Mexico rather than 3 miles • Conservative Texans supported Eisenhower • Eisenhower supported Texas on Tidelands issue • Supporters were called “Shivercrats” • Liberal Democrats supported Stevenson • Resulted in split in Texas Democratic Party • Conservatives • Liberals Gov Allen Shivers

  11. Notable Texas Politicians • Sam Rayburn • US Speaker of the House • Regarded by many as “The Most Effective Speaker” in US history • Lyndon Johnson • US House and Senate • Senate Majority Leader • Vice President • President • Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Civil Rights Act of 1968 • Vietnam War

  12. Notable Texas Politicians • John B. Connally • Governor • Secretary of Treasury, Navy • Henry B Gonzalez • US House 1961-1999 • Bill Clements • 1987 Became 1st Republican Governor since Reconstruction

  13. Notable Texas Politicians • Barbara Jordan • In 1972 she became first African American Woman to represent a Southern state in US House of Representatives • Ann Richards • Defeated Clayton Williams to become 2nd woman to serve as Governor • George HW Bush “born with a silver foot in his mouth” at 1988 DNC • Defeated by George W. Bush • in 1994 • Henry Cisneros • Elected Mayor of San Antonio in 1981 • First Hispanic to serve as mayor of major US city • Secretary of HUD 1993-97

  14. Texas Geography • Second Largest State • Alaska (land) • California (population) • Rich in Natural Resources • Agriculture • Minerals • Oil • Gas

  15. Texas Cultural Regions • East Texas • Gulf Coast • South and Southwest • German Hill Country • West Texas • Panhandle • North Texas • Central Texas

  16. East Texas • Social and Cultural Extension of Old South • Tyler • Marshall • Lady Bird Johnson • Bill Moyers • Nacogdoches • Jasper • Rural and Biracial • Segregated • Dominated by Old Families

  17. Gulf Coast • Discovery of oil in Beaumont (Spindletop in 1901) gave birth to Gulf Oil and Texaco and “Fueled” Development • Economy • Refineries/Petrochemicals • Beaumont, Port Arthur, Baytown, Pasadena, Deer Park, La Porte • Shipping • Port of Houston 2nd only to South Louisiana Port Facility • Bayport Expansion • Economy Diversifying • Globalization

  18. South and Southwest Texas • Ranchero Culture • Creoles • Meztizos • NAFTA stimulated economic development in South Texas and along the Border in Mexico • Brownsville • McAllen • Harlingen • Edinburg • Pharr • Laredo • Eagle Pass

  19. German Hill Country • Farming and Ranching • Conservative • Republican Stronghold • East European Immigrants established a “German Belt” stretching from Texas's Coastal Plain to the Hill Country • Flatonia • Weimar • Shiner • New Braunfels • Gruene • Fredericksburg • LBJ born near Stonewall

  20. West Texas • Individualistic • Socially Conservative • Bible Belt Fundamentalism • Oil and Gas • Midland • George HW Bush began oil business in Permian Basin • Odessa • Odessa Permian Panthers • Friday Night Lights • El Paso • Largest city in West Texas • Loving County has smallest population of any county in US • 2000 population of 67

  21. Panhandle • Midwestern • Protestant • Conservative • Republican

  22. North Texas • Urban • Commercial Economy • Banking • Corporate • Cosmopolitan Dallas • Old West Fort Worth

  23. Central Texas • Bounded by San Antonio, Dallas, Houston • Austin • Dramatic Population Growth • Top 5 Metro Areas • Considered the most liberal city in Texas • Economy • State of Texas • University of Texas • Texas Silicon Valley

  24. Texas Population • One of fastest growing states at twice the national average • 1990 pop—17 million • 2000 pop—21 million • 2007 pop—24 million • 80% Urban • Four urban areas account for over 50% of state’s population • Harris • Tarrant • Bexar • Dallas • Population Concentrated in East of Line from Dallas/Austin/Brownsville • Harris Co SMSA 5.6 million

  25. Ethnic Diversity • Texas Officially Minority-Majority State • Anglos—48% • Hispanics—36% • South and Southwest Texas • African Americans—12% • East and Southeast Texas • Asian Americans—3.4% • Native Americans—1%

  26. Religious Diversity • Population Rankings • First in Evangelical Protestants • Third in Catholics • Third in Buddhists • Fifth in Muslims • Fifth in Hindus • Tenth in Jewish • Political Candidates Must Consider Broad Range of Social and Moral Issues When Campaigning • Abortion • Same Sex Marriage • Gun Control • Gambling • Alcohol Southern Baptists in Texas

  27. Education and Poverty • State Rankings • 8th Persons Below Poverty • 31st Average Teacher Salaries • 30th Household Income • 50th in population over 25 with HS Diploma • 27th in population over 25 with Bachelors Degree • Poverty • 16.2% poverty rate compared to 12% national poverty rate • 36 of 254 counties considered persistently poor with greater than 20% poverty rate Poverty Rates in Texas Counties

  28. 2008 Democratic Primary Map Can you see how demographic variables influenced the outcome to the Texas Primary?

  29. Texas PrimaryDemocrats and Republicans Why do you think Huckabee did so well in Northeast Texas and the Panhandle? Why did Obama do better in Beaumont-Port Arthur, Houston, Austin and DFW?

  30. Texas Democratic Caucus Why did Obama do much better the caucuses than he did in the primary?