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THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR. No More War!. At the end of WWI League of Nations formed In hopes of preventing war World War II brought the end of the League After WWII new international organization formed to better address future aggression. United Nations.

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  2. No More War! • At the end of WWI • League of Nations formed • In hopes of preventing war • World War II brought the end of the League • After WWII new international organization formed • to better address future aggression

  3. United Nations • Began in 1945 with a meeting of 50 countries in San Francisco • China, France, USSR, UK, & US are permanent members of Security Council

  4. At center of Cold War • The crux was that there was now 2 world powers • They came from completely opposite spheres • Never understanding the other • Republican/democratic ideals • Communist w/crushing memories • Monarchy & aristocracy who lived off the rest • Recent & past invasion

  5. The Cold War Begins: • Issues Dividing US & USSR: • Control of postwar Europe • Economic aid • Nuclear disarmament

  6. The Division of Europe • 1945 • USSR occupied east Europe • US troops occupied west Europe

  7. Soviet Union sought east Euro buffer zone • For protection against invasion • Stalin converted east Europe into a system of satellite nations

  8. U.S. demanded national self-determination through free elections thru-out Europe

  9. Beginnings of Post-War Conflict • USSR • History of invasion • Wanted buffer zone • Gained control over E. Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria • They became the “Iron Curtain”

  10. War Aims & WartimeDiplomacy • Russia claimed east Euro as prize for conquest of Germany • US sought collective security arrangement • incl the United Nations • Yalta, Potsdam conferences clarify US, USSR differences

  11. Division Began in Berlin

  12. USSR & Stalin • Joseph Stalin • Premier after Lenin • Suspected of killing <#s than the Nazi’s • Up to 30 million • Regime brutal

  13. Withholding Economic Aid • USSR devastated by World War II • US could have influenced w/Lend-Lease economic aid • 1945--United States halted Lend-Lease • Before USSR settlement • Leverage lost in shaping Soviet policy

  14. The Atomic Dilemma • 1943--Nuclear race btwn US & USSR • 1946--Baruch Plan • Rapid reduction of U.S. military force • Gradual reduction favored US atomic monopoly

  15. Atomic Dilemma, 2 • Soviet Union • Larger conventional army than U.S. • Favored immediate abolition of atomic weapons

  16. Containment • New era of foreign policy & ideology • calls for “containment of Russia’s expansive tendencies”

  17. Turkey & Greece • Upheaval in both countries started alarm bells in the US • Fears that communism would spread to these countries • Pushed US toward a harder line on the spread of communism

  18. The Truman Doctrine • 1947 • Truman pressed for funds to keep Greece & Turkey in western sphere of influence

  19. Truman Doctrine • Truman Doctrine: • stop spread of communism • Became an informal declaration of cold war against the Soviet Union • Meanwhile…back in Europe

  20. The Marshall Plan • Europe devastated by War • 1947 • George Marshall proposed aid for rebuilding European industries

  21. Marshall Plan • USSR refused aid • 1948--Marshall Plan adopted by Congress • Plan fostered west Euro prosperity

  22. The Western Military Alliance • NATO formed • 1949 • North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Military alliance included US, Canada, most of west Euro

  23. NATO • US troops stationed in Europe • NATO intensified USSR’s fear of the West

  24. The Berlin Blockade • June, 1948--USSR blockaded Berlin • Truman ordered airlift to supply the city • 1949--USSR ended blockade • US political victory dramatized division

  25. Berlin Airlift Notice that Berlin is far in the interior of East Germany

  26. Planes landed/took off every 90 seconds

  27. The Cold War Expanded • 1947--US-USSR arms race accelerated • Conflict expanded to Asia

  28. Military Added to the Mix

  29. The Military Dimension • 1947--National Security Act created • Department of Defense • Central Intelligence Agency • National Security Council • Defense budget devoted to air power

  30. Department of Defense • All Armed Services united into one department • Created Secretary of Defense & Joint Chiefs

  31. Central Intelligence Agency • Created to gather info outside the US • Before long—covert actions around the globe • Pretext of protecting democracy

  32. National Security Council • Created under the Act • Advises President • Secretaries of Defense, & Intelligence members

  33. Raising the Threat Level • 1949 • first Russian atomic bomb tested • US began hydrogen bomb development

  34. All this brought worry… • How to control the worry and anxiety? • Civil Defense program reinforced • Govt knew that if people were given instructions on how to survive they would be less fearful & feel empowered

  35. American’s sought emergency shelter • Civil defense shelters • Home bomb shelters

  36. “Bomb” Shelters And Homemade In cities & towns

  37. Protecting Children? • “Bert the Turtle” told young Americans to “Duck and Cover” • While by today’s standards this film seems ridiculous • It became part of the larger effort to educate Americans

  38. The Cold War in Asia • 1945 • US consolidated hold on Japan • & former possessions in Pacific

  39. The Cold War in Asia • 1949 end of Chinese Civil War • Victory of Mao Tse-tung brought China into Soviet orbit • Truman refused recognition of Communist China • began build up Japan

  40. Cold War Goes Hot • 1950-1953 • June, 1950 • Communist North Korean forces • invaded US-influenced South Korea

  41. Korea

  42. The Korean War • Truman made South Korea’s defense UN effort, sent US troops • US routs Korean forces in South • Attempt to unify Korea draws in China • US pushed back to South • War a stalemate • Result--massive American rearmament

  43. Cold War at Home

  44. The Cold War at Home • New Deal economic policies undermined • Fears of Communist subversion rise • Republicans use anticommunism to revive their party

  45. Truman's Troubles • Obstacles to Truman’s Fair Deal reforms • Apathetic public • Inflation • Labor unrest • 1946--Republicans win Congress

  46. Truman Vindicated • 1948--Thomas Dewey versus Truman • Southern Democrats, Northern liberals desert • Roosevelt coalition reelects Truman on domestic issues • Republicans respond by challenging Truman’s handling of the Cold War

  47. The Loyalty Issue • Fear of Communist subversion • Truman admin conducted campaign against “subversives” • Democrats blamed for: • "losing" China to Communism • USSR development of hydrogen bomb

  48. Communist Fear = McCarthy • 1950 • Senator Joseph McCarthy • launched anticommunist campaign • Became modern day witch hunt

  49. Fear & McCarthy • In the 40s & 50s rising fear of Communism • McCarthy charged <200 Communists infiltrated US • Held public hearing charging entertainers, educators, & avg citizens as agitators • [good film: “Good Night & Good Luck”]

  50. McCarthyism in Action • Innocent overwhelmed by accusations • Attacked privileged bureaucrats • supported by Midwest Republicans • attracted • Irish • Italian & • Polish workers to Republicans

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