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THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR

THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR

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THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR

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  1. THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR

  2. No More War! • At the end of WWI • League of Nations formed • In hopes of preventing war • World War II brought the end of the League • After WWII new international organization formed • to better address future aggression

  3. United Nations • Began in 1945 with a meeting of 50 countries in San Francisco • China, France, USSR, UK, & US are permanent members of Security Council

  4. At center of Cold War • The crux was that there was now 2 world powers • They came from completely opposite spheres • Never understanding the other • Republican/democratic ideals • Communist w/crushing memories • Monarchy & aristocracy who lived off the rest • Recent & past invasion

  5. The Cold War Begins: • Issues Dividing US & USSR: • Control of postwar Europe • Economic aid • Nuclear disarmament

  6. The Division of Europe • 1945 • USSR occupied east Europe • US troops occupied west Europe

  7. Soviet Union sought east Euro buffer zone • For protection against invasion • Stalin converted east Europe into a system of satellite nations

  8. U.S. demanded national self-determination through free elections thru-out Europe

  9. Beginnings of Post-War Conflict • USSR • History of invasion • Wanted buffer zone • Gained control over E. Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria • They became the “Iron Curtain”

  10. War Aims & WartimeDiplomacy • Russia claimed east Euro as prize for conquest of Germany • US sought collective security arrangement • incl the United Nations • Yalta, Potsdam conferences clarify US, USSR differences

  11. Division Began in Berlin

  12. USSR & Stalin • Joseph Stalin • Premier after Lenin • Suspected of killing <#s than the Nazi’s • Up to 30 million • Regime brutal

  13. Withholding Economic Aid • USSR devastated by World War II • US could have influenced w/Lend-Lease economic aid • 1945--United States halted Lend-Lease • Before USSR settlement • Leverage lost in shaping Soviet policy

  14. The Atomic Dilemma • 1943--Nuclear race btwn US & USSR • 1946--Baruch Plan • Rapid reduction of U.S. military force • Gradual reduction favored US atomic monopoly

  15. Atomic Dilemma, 2 • Soviet Union • Larger conventional army than U.S. • Favored immediate abolition of atomic weapons

  16. Containment • New era of foreign policy & ideology • calls for “containment of Russia’s expansive tendencies”

  17. Turkey & Greece • Upheaval in both countries started alarm bells in the US • Fears that communism would spread to these countries • Pushed US toward a harder line on the spread of communism

  18. The Truman Doctrine • 1947 • Truman pressed for funds to keep Greece & Turkey in western sphere of influence

  19. Truman Doctrine • Truman Doctrine: • stop spread of communism • Became an informal declaration of cold war against the Soviet Union • Meanwhile…back in Europe

  20. The Marshall Plan • Europe devastated by War • 1947 • George Marshall proposed aid for rebuilding European industries

  21. Marshall Plan • USSR refused aid • 1948--Marshall Plan adopted by Congress • Plan fostered west Euro prosperity

  22. The Western Military Alliance • NATO formed • 1949 • North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Military alliance included US, Canada, most of west Euro

  23. NATO • US troops stationed in Europe • NATO intensified USSR’s fear of the West

  24. The Berlin Blockade • June, 1948--USSR blockaded Berlin • Truman ordered airlift to supply the city • 1949--USSR ended blockade • US political victory dramatized division

  25. Berlin Airlift Notice that Berlin is far in the interior of East Germany

  26. Planes landed/took off every 90 seconds

  27. The Cold War Expanded • 1947--US-USSR arms race accelerated • Conflict expanded to Asia

  28. Military Added to the Mix

  29. The Military Dimension • 1947--National Security Act created • Department of Defense • Central Intelligence Agency • National Security Council • Defense budget devoted to air power

  30. Department of Defense • All Armed Services united into one department • Created Secretary of Defense & Joint Chiefs

  31. Central Intelligence Agency • Created to gather info outside the US • Before long—covert actions around the globe • Pretext of protecting democracy

  32. National Security Council • Created under the Act • Advises President • Secretaries of Defense, & Intelligence members

  33. Raising the Threat Level • 1949 • first Russian atomic bomb tested • US began hydrogen bomb development

  34. All this brought worry… • How to control the worry and anxiety? • Civil Defense program reinforced • Govt knew that if people were given instructions on how to survive they would be less fearful & feel empowered

  35. American’s sought emergency shelter • Civil defense shelters • Home bomb shelters

  36. “Bomb” Shelters And Homemade In cities & towns

  37. Protecting Children? • “Bert the Turtle” told young Americans to “Duck and Cover” • While by today’s standards this film seems ridiculous • It became part of the larger effort to educate Americans

  38. The Cold War in Asia • 1945 • US consolidated hold on Japan • & former possessions in Pacific

  39. The Cold War in Asia • 1949 end of Chinese Civil War • Victory of Mao Tse-tung brought China into Soviet orbit • Truman refused recognition of Communist China • began build up Japan

  40. Cold War Goes Hot • 1950-1953 • June, 1950 • Communist North Korean forces • invaded US-influenced South Korea

  41. Korea

  42. The Korean War • Truman made South Korea’s defense UN effort, sent US troops • US routs Korean forces in South • Attempt to unify Korea draws in China • US pushed back to South • War a stalemate • Result--massive American rearmament

  43. Cold War at Home

  44. The Cold War at Home • New Deal economic policies undermined • Fears of Communist subversion rise • Republicans use anticommunism to revive their party

  45. Truman's Troubles • Obstacles to Truman’s Fair Deal reforms • Apathetic public • Inflation • Labor unrest • 1946--Republicans win Congress

  46. Truman Vindicated • 1948--Thomas Dewey versus Truman • Southern Democrats, Northern liberals desert • Roosevelt coalition reelects Truman on domestic issues • Republicans respond by challenging Truman’s handling of the Cold War

  47. The Loyalty Issue • Fear of Communist subversion • Truman admin conducted campaign against “subversives” • Democrats blamed for: • "losing" China to Communism • USSR development of hydrogen bomb

  48. Communist Fear = McCarthy • 1950 • Senator Joseph McCarthy • launched anticommunist campaign • Became modern day witch hunt

  49. Fear & McCarthy • In the 40s & 50s rising fear of Communism • McCarthy charged <200 Communists infiltrated US • Held public hearing charging entertainers, educators, & avg citizens as agitators • [good film: “Good Night & Good Luck”]

  50. McCarthyism in Action • Innocent overwhelmed by accusations • Attacked privileged bureaucrats • supported by Midwest Republicans • attracted • Irish • Italian & • Polish workers to Republicans