The War in the Pacific Chapter 17 Section 3 Pages 578-587
Bataan, Philippines • April 1942 • General Douglas MacArthur, “I shall return” • Surrender of 80,000 American and Filipino troops • Death March of 100 miles • Approx. 10,000 perish due to beatings, bayoneting, beheadings, and sun torture
Doolittle’s Raid • April 1942 • Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle • U.S.S. Hornet • 16 B-25s with 5 man crews • Crews fly to China • 3 of the 8 captured crew members are executed • Leads Japanese to set their sights on Midway • Boosts America’s spirits
The Battle of the Coral Sea • May 1942 • The first of the Pacific War's six fights between opposing aircraft carrier forces • Although a Japanese victory on "points", it was an operational and strategic defeat
The Battle of Midway • June 4-7, 1942 • Japanese Fleet commander Admiral Yamamoto • Yamamoto's intended surprise was thwarted • Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, the U.S. Pacific Fleet commander, established an ambush • Cost Japan four irreplaceable fleet carriers, a cruiser and 250 airplanes • Only one U.S. carriers was lost • War’s turning point
Admiral Yamamoto • Naval War College and Harvard University • Naval Attache to U.S. • Planned attack on Pearl Harbor • Killed by aerial ambush in 1943
Guadalcanal • August 1942 – February 1943 • Solomon Islands • 24,000 Japanese casualties to 6,000 American • Island of Death • 1st land defeat for Japanese • Considered the turning point for the Japanese Army
Battle of Leyte Gulf • Philippine Islands in October 1944 • This would be the last major naval action during the war • Kamikaze (divine wind) attacks sink 16 ships and damage 80 • Largest naval battle ever to take place • The U.S. submarine blockade of Japan • MacArthur fulfills his promise and returns to the Philippines • Frees the Bataan POWs
"Gen. Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines, October 20, 1944."Wide World Photos, From: Buchanan, between pp. 412-413, photo # 18
Iwo Jima • February – March 1945 • "No other island received as much preliminary pounding as did Iwo Jima." . . . Admiral Nimitz, CINPAC • Incredibly, this ferocious bombardment had little effect • 22,000 defenders were burrowed in the volcanic rock • 200 Japanese survived
It was the largest armada invasion up to that time in the Pacific War. 70,000 Marines; 7,000 died; and 19,000 casualties
Mt. Suribachi, the 550-foot volcanic cone at the islands southern tip, dominates both possible landing beaches. From here, Japanese gunners zeroed in on every inch of the landing beach. Blockhouses and pillboxes flanked the landing areas.
Four of the Flag Raisers (Bradley, Hayes, Sousley & Strank) appear with their jubilant buddies. Strank, Sousley and many of these boys would soon be dead. The battle for the island raged on for another four weeks.
Battle for Okinawa • April 1945 • 1,900 kamikaze attacks sinking 30 ships, damaging 300 more, and killing 5,000 seamen • 7,600 Americans die taking the island • 110,000 Japanese die • 150,000 Okinawans perish, 1/3 of the population • Second only to Stalingrad in loss of life • Foreshadowed the cost of invading Japan • Churchill predicted 1 million American and 500,00 British lives
A Marine dashes across a draw nicknamed 'Death Valley‘ During heavy fighting in May; in 8 hrs the Marines took 125 Casualties here (National Archives Photo)
The Manhattan Project "Little Boy" (uranium bomb) is seen on the left, and "Fat Man" (plutonium) is seen on the right.
The Atomic Bomb Ends the War • Robert Oppenheimer was lead scientist • 600,000 Americans worked on pieces of the project • Very few knew the projects intent • 1st test is on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM
Truman’s Decision • Warns Japan that it faced “prompt and utter destruction” unless it surrendered at once • Japan refuses • “Let there be no mistake about it. I regarded the bomb as a military weapon and never had any doubt that it should be used”
Hiroshima • Enola Gay takes off August 6, 1945 • “Little Boy” kills 70,000 on impact • Another 70,000 will die from injuries within the next 5 years • 90% of the cities buildings are destroyed • 3 days later “Fat Man” is dropped
Hiroshima The hypocenter seen from the sky. With Aioi Bridge between them, the Hiroshima Chamber of Commerce and Industry (A-bomb Dome) and Honkawa Elementary school remain standing in ruin. (Photo by US Army)
Nagasaki • August 9, 1945 • Population 240,000 • Only 40% of the city is destroyed thanks to its geography • 39,000 killed • 25,000 injured • Ruins of a Roman Catholic Cathedral
Aftermath • The two bombings killed an estimated 110,000 Japanese citizens and injured another 130,000. • By 1950, another 230,000 Japanese had died from injuries or radiation. • Though the two cities were nominally military targets, the overwhelming majority of the casualties were civilian. • Both cities have become centers for peace movements supporting the ban on nuclear weapons.
Douglas MacArthur Prickly and arrogant Brilliant strategist 10 Japanese killed for every American He took more territory with less loss of life Rebuilds Japan after the war Adapts Japanese traditions to western political and economic systems Fails to receive Republican nomination for president
Rebuilding Begins • The Yalta Conference, February 1945 • Ailing FDR, Churchill and Stalin (Big Three) meet on the Black Sea in the Soviet Union to discuss the future of Germany and the postwar world • Stalin wanted Germany divided into occupation zones • FDR makes concessions for two reasons: • Wants the Soviets to enter the war against Japan (the atom bomb is still 5 months from completion) • Wants Stalin to support and join the United Nations
Rebuilding Begins • Series of compromises between the Big Three • Four zones of occupation • FDR and Churchill assumed this was to be temporary • Stalin promises “free and unfettered elections” in Poland and other Soviet-occupied Eastern European countries • Stalin agrees to fight Japan • Lastly, Stalin agrees to participate in the April 1945 meeting in San Francisco
The Nuremberg War Trials • 24 surviving Nazis on trial for crimes against humanity, crimes against peace, and war crimes (defined on page 586) • 12 of the 24 will be executed • Lesser trials to follow will convict 200 more • Unfortunately, many go unpunished • Established the principle that individuals are responsible for their actions is now firmly entrenched in international law
The Occupation of Japan • Gen. Douglas MacArthur • 1,100 Japanese will be tried including Prime Minister Hideki Tojo • 7 are sentenced to death • 7 year occupation MacArthur reshapes Japanese economy by introducing free-market practices • Transforms their government with a new constitution, still known today as the MacArthur Constitution