WELCOME to the Presentation Our Topic is KASHMIR DISPUTE
Group member • Md. Arifur Rahman ID: 09310058 • Abul Asad Saimon ID:08310125 • MD.Al hasan Shohag ID:09510395 • Shaheda Arobe ID:08410008 • MD.Arifur Rahman ID:09410149 • Shaikh Jahidur Rahman ID:10310290 • Md. Eamin Zabed ID:09510082
Introduction • Disputed region, whose sovereignty contested by India and Pakistan. The partition of the Indian sub-continent along religious lines led to the formation of India and Pakistan. It is also a known fact that the perceptions of India and Pakistan about what constitutes the dispute are totally different. Pakistan regards it as an unfinished agenda of the Partition of the sub-continent in 1947 and as an issue of granting the right of self-determination to the Kashmir’s, a principle also upheld by the UN Security Council resolutions. India, on the other hand, regards it as its territorial issue.
Territorial Issue • It asserts that Jammu and Kashmir is an integral part of India and that Pakistan is occupying Indian Territory • The impasse has resulted with India occupying two thirds of the territory of Jammu and Kashmir, and Pakistan administering one-third, with an UN-recognized ceasefire line separating them. • India claims the entire former Dogra princely state of Jammu and Kashmir and presently administers approximately 43% of the region including most of Jammu, Kashmir Valley, Ladakh and the Siachen Glacier. • India's claim is contested by Pakistan which controls approximately 37% of Kashmir, mainly Azad Kashmir and the northern areas of Gilgit and Baltistan. • In addition, China controls 20% of Kashmir including Aksai Chin • In this connection it may be noted that the Indian government adopted a dual policy on the Kashmir dispute. continued……………
Prime Minister Nehru, were interested in incorporating the State of Jammu and Kashmir into the Indian Union. • Gandhi is reported to have said that Kashmir ‘had the greatest strategic value, perhaps, in all India.’ • Through Kashmir, India hoped to be in a better position to strangulate Pakistan by securing a strategic edge and by having control over the rivers flowing into Pakistan. • The Kashmir dispute dominates Indo-Pakistan relations, and has also become central for peace and stability in the South Asian region. • Though the international concern is palpable over Kashmir becoming a potential nuclear flashpoint, the world community at the present juncture has yet to give more teeth to the Security Council resolutions that it has neglected for so many years. • Taking advantage of the unspecified nature of the ‘anti-terrorism’ campaign, the BJP government in India has seized the opportunity to attempt to clinch the Kashmir dispute according to its own thinking, by recasting the indigenous Kashmir struggle as a terrorist one. • Pakistan thinks that it will be solved according to wish of Kashmir’s and formula which is acceptable for all parties .
KASHMIR DISPUTE:From-1947 to 1957 • Sub-continent was partitioned on the agreed principle that contiguous Muslim majority areas were to be separated from the contiguous non-Muslim majority areas • In Section 7 of the Indian Independence Act, 1947, it was stated that ‘the suzerainty of His Majesty over the Indian States lapses.’ Thus, legally the Princely States became independent. • However, disputes over independence arose with India in the case of three Princely States, namely Junagadh, Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir. • India continued to increase pressure on Hyderabad and by the middle of 1948 had imposed an economic blockade as well as carried out border raids. • When Partition took place, the Muslim majority population of Jammu and Kashmir was in favor of joining Pakistan, whereas the Hindu Maharaja was reluctant, hoping that he would retain his independence. • The situation further deteriorated when, towards the end of July 1947,the Maharaja ordered the Muslims to surrender their arms to the police, and communal violence erupted. continued…………….
In the Jammu province, hundreds of Muslims were massacred by the Hindus and Sikhs, who attacked Muslim villages. • The study of historical events shows that initially the Maharaja sent the Deputy Prime Minister, R. L. Batra, to New Delhi, on October 24, with a ‘letter of accession to India’ which could not be signed. • The Indian Prime Minister in a telegram, dated October 27, 1947, to the Prime Minister of Pakistan stated: ‘I should like to make it clear that the question of aiding Kashmir in the emergency is not designed in any way to influence the State to accede to India. Our view which we have repeatedly made public is that the question of accession in any disputed territory or State must be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people and we adhere to this view.’ • In another telegram dated October 31,1947, Prime Minister Nehru again pledged: ‘Our assurance that we shall withdraw our troops from Kashmir as soon as peace and order are restored and leave the decision regarding the future of this State to the people of the state is not merely a promise to your Government but also to the people of Kashmir and to the world’. continued…………………….
in June 1949, India exiled the Maharaja, and installed hisson, Karan Singh, temporarily as his Regent. • In 1954, the president of India promulgated a Constitutional Order, with reference to Indian-held Kashmir, empowering the Indian government ‘to legislate on all matters on the Union List, not just defense, foreign affairs and communications. • Finally, in November 1956, the Constituent Assembly of Indian-held Kashmir finalized the Constitution of the State. • The UN Security Council in its Resolution 122 of January 24, 1957, reaffirmed that the ‘final disposition of the State of Jammu and Kashmir will be made in accordance with the will of the people expressed through the democratic means under the auspices of the United Nations’
KASHMIR DISPUTEFrom-1958 to 1966 • Sheikh Abdullah, then in prison, protested against the decision of the Constituent Assembly. • When Sheikh Abdullah was released in January 1958, he supported the Plebiscite Front and strongly criticised the decision of the Constituently Assembly. • Nehru refused to discuss the subject bilaterally until 1963, when India, under pressure from the United States and Britain, engaged in six rounds of secret talks with Pakistan on "Kashmir and other related issues." But, these negotiations failed • 1965 Indo-Pakistani war: March 1965:India claims Kashmir. The Indian Parliament passes a bill declaring Kashmir a province of India. • August 1965:Pakistan sends infiltrators, India accuses Pakistan of sending infiltrators to Kashmir. Indian forces cross the cease-fire line in Kashmir. • September 6, 1965:India retaliates against Pakistan. India attacks Pakistan across the international border and tries to capture Pakistan's second largest city, Lahore. • September 23, 1965:Calls for an end to hostilities. The United Nations Security Council arrange a cease-fire Line • January 10, 1966:Tashkent agreement signed: The Soviet Union arranges talks between Pakistan and India. The armies are to withdraw to their original positions and the second war between two countries end.
KASHMIR DISPUTE1967 to 1979: • India is also against third party intervention, stating that the issue can be resolved bilaterally under the Simla Agreement. The Agreement was signed on July 2, 1972, • the Agreement neither alters the disputed status of Kashmir nor precludes the role of the United Nations, • INDO-PAKISTANI WAR 1971: Although Kashmir was not the cause of 1971 war between the two countries, a limited war did occur on the Kashmir front in December 1971. The 1971 war was followed by the signing of the Simla Accord, under which India and Pakistan are obliged to resolve the dispute through bilateral talks. • May, 1987:As a result of an agreement between Rajiv Gandhi and Farooq Abdullah, elections for the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly are blatantly fixed in favor of the National Conference, resulting in widespread unrest in the state • 1988:Operation Tupac launched by Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence to support militants in Kashmir with aim of disintegrating India.
KASHMIR DISPUTEFrom-1989 to 1999 • Since 1989, the situation in Occupied Kashmir has undergone a qualitative change. • The initial Indian response to the 1989 Kashmiri uprising was the imposition of Governor’s Rule in the disputed State in 1990, which was done after dissolving the government of Farooq Abdullah, the son of Sheikh Abdullah. • January 19, 1990: Kashmir brought under Indian control: The Indian government brings Kashmir under its direct control. Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), Mr. Jagmohan is appointed governor. • February 27, 1990:United Nations not allowed in Kashmir: India refuses to allow any United Nations official to visit Kashmir. • April 14, 1990:military reinforcements in Kashmir: Indian authorities send military reinforcements to Kashmir. To crush the Kashmiri freedom movement, India has employed various means of state terrorism, including a number of draconian laws, massive counter-insurgency operations, and other oppressive measures. • November 1992: Amnesty International not allowed into Kashmir: Amnesty International is barred from going to the Kashmir valley by Indian Government. • continued………………………..
KASHMIR DISPUTE • January 20, 1995:India doesn't want third-party involvement in Kashmir: India excludes the possibility of third-party involvement in the resolution of the Kashmir dispute. • February 16, 1996: APHC calls for tripartite talks: Kashmiri groups ask India and Pakistan to begin tripartite talks to end the six-year-old rebellion against New Delhi. The groups say most Muslims in the area support the proposal. • March 28, 1997:India and Pakistan begin negotiations: Pakistan's Foreign Secretary, Shamshad Ahmed, and India's Foreign Secretary, Salman Haider, meet at the negotiating table for the first time in three years. • June 22, 1997: India and Pakistan reach an agreement: Pakistan and India agree to establish a mechanism for enduring dialogue on issues between the two countries • April 22, 1998:appointment of new Kashmir governor: The Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP) government appoints Garish Saxena as Governor of Jammu and Kashmir. The appointment is resented by human rights activists and intellectuals who demanded a senior politician close to Kashmir be sent as governor. • May 11 and 13, 1998:India conducts five nuclear tests • continued………………………..
May 28 and 30, 1998:Pakistan responds by conducting its six nuclear tests (five on May28 and one on May 30). • June 6, 1998:Pakistan proposes Kashmir resolution and a halt to nuclear arms buildup: Pakistani Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif, proposes talks between Islamabad and New Delhi to stop the South Asian arms race and urges the international community to help resolve the issue of Kashmir. • September 2, 1998:NAM calls for resolution of Kashmir dispute: For the first time in history, the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) calls for a peaceful resolution of the dispute over Jammu and Kashmir. • September 23, 1998:Pakistan and India agree to resume Kashmir talks: Pakistan and India agree to resume stalled dialogue on Kashmir and other security issues. • May 26, 1999:Kargil War Conflict in Kargil: Location of conflict. In mid-1999 insurgents and Pakistani soldiers from Pakistani Kashmir infiltrated into Jammu and Kashmir.
KASHMIR DISPUTEFrom-2000 to 2008 • 2000sFebruary 2000: US President makes statement: President Bill Clinton says he would be happy to mediate between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir conflict -- if asked. • November 2000:call for Muslim nations to cut ties with India: A leading separatist, Syed Salahuddin, calls on Muslim nations to cut diplomatic and economic ties with India. At the same time, Kashmiri leaders call on India to recognize the territory as disputed and to hold talks with Pakistan and Kashmiri leaders. • July 14–16, 2001:General Pervez Musharraf and Atal Behari Vajpayee meet for peacetalks, Agra Summit:Indian Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee, and Pakistani President, Pervez Musharraf, meet in Agra, India for a summit on relations between the two nations. • July 11, 2003:Delhi-Lahore bus service resumes. Time ideal for resolving Kashmir: Musharraf June 10, 2004 13:26 IST, Asserting the time is now ideal for India and Pakistan to resolve all issues between them, • September 24, 2004: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President Musharraf meet in New York during UN General Assembly. Pervez Musharraf: Kashmir issue should be resolved. continued………………………..
June, 2007: Two Indian soldiers have been paraded naked for allegedly attempting torape a girl in Indian-administered Kashmir, police say. • August 25, 2008: All anti Indian ,separatist and Islamist organisation leaders arrested due to their uncontrolled anti-Indian activities , to restore the law and order in the Indian-administered Kashmir. • December 30, 2008: Omar Abdullah of National Conference chosen the new Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir takes oath on January 5, 2009, becoming the 11th and the youngest Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir. • 22 July 2009Associated Press of Pakistan Brussels: Minister for Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas Qamar Zaman Kaira said on Wednesday that peaceful resolution of Kashmir issue is imperative as it would bring development and prosperity in the region. Talking to journalists after his meeting with Member European Parliament and Chairman All Party Kashmir Group in EU Parliament, James Elles here, he said Pakistan has always supported amicable and peaceful resolution of Kashmir issue as per resolutions of United Nations.
August 20 2009: Human Rights workers discovered several unmarked graves containing about 1,500 unidentified bodies in Indian Administered Kashmir. • Obama on Kashmir Conflict In an interview with Joe Klien of Time magazine Barack Obama expressed his intention to try to work with India and Pakistan to resolve this crisis in a serious way. • In July 2009 US Assistant Secretary of State Robert O. Blake, stated categorically that United States had no plans of appointing any special envoy to settle the long standing dispute of Kashmir between India and Pakistan calling it an issue which needs to be sorted out bilaterally by the two neighboring states. • 26 SEPTEMBER 2009: Addressing from 64the session of the United Nations General assembly, President of Pakistan Asif ali zardari said “For the betterment of the region, we have to solve issue of Kashmir”. The world has shrunk and a regional conflict can engulf the whole world, especially because India and Pakistan are both nuclear powers.
Suggestion & Conclusions • 1)Kashmir Issue should be solved according to wish of kashmiris. • 2)Kashmir Issue should be solved according to UN resolution which said that through plebiscite kashmir is choose their future. • 3)Start freedom fight against Indian army (terrorists) for independence of Kashmir from Indian occupation. • 4)India will never give Kashmir is peaceful region so with the help of Pakistan army by hook or by crook snatch the independence from India. • 5)Pakistan should help the kashmir separatist group. Give them training or other required things. • 6)Pakistan should help kashmir is financially or morally. • 7)With the help of China, Nepal,Bangladesh,srilanka Pakistan should start war against India and get Kashmir back. • 8)World should take interest in solving Kashmir issue and contempt Indian occupation on Kashmir. Continued............
9)Now, Indian army bloody face against Kashmiri people was known by the world so, Un should take step against Indian army and forced it to left Kashmir. • 10)Any talks on Kashmir, kashmir is should involve. • 11)Pakistan and India relationship will only be good by solving Kashmir issue. • 12) We should start pressuring India with the help of other countries to withdraw it stroops from Kashmir. • 13)India should withdraw from its false right on Kashmir. • 14)India will never give rights to Kashmir is which is against humanity. • 15) If Kashmir issue is not solved there is no peace in the region.