Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

cost volume profit analysis n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis

play fullscreen
1 / 56
Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
208 Views
Download Presentation
sorena
Download Presentation

Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis Chapter 21

  2. Objective 1 Identify how changes in volume affect costs

  3. Cost Behavior • How costs change in response to changes in a cost driver • Cost driver - any factor whose change makes a difference in a related total cost • Volume (units or dollars) - most prominent cost driver in cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis

  4. Cost Behavior • Variable costs • Fixed costs • Mixed costs

  5. Total Variable Costs

  6. Variable Cost Per Unit • Variable costs per unit do not changeas activity increases

  7. Total Fixed Costs

  8. Mixed Costs

  9. Mixed Costs Variable Fixed

  10. E21-14 _____ 1. Oil filter _____ 2. Building rent _____ 3. Oil _____ 4. Wages of maintenance worker _____ 5. Television _____ 6. Manager’s salary _____ 7. Cash register _____ 8. Equipment V F V V F F F F

  11. E21-15 a

  12. E21-15 b

  13. E21-15 c

  14. High-Low Method • Method to separate mixed costs into variable and fixed components • Select the highest level and the lowest level of activity over a period of time

  15. High-Low Method – E21-16 Step 1: Calculate variable cost/unit = Δ total cost / Δ volume of activity ($4,000-$3,600) ÷ (1,000-600) $400 ÷ 400 = $1

  16. High-Low Method Step 2: Calculate total fixed costs = Total mixed cost – Total variable cost $4,000 – ($1 * 1,000) = $3,000 or $3,600 – ($1 * 600) = $3,000

  17. High-Low Method Step 3: Create and use an equation to show the behavior of a mixed cost Total mixed cost = $1x + $3,000 = ($1 * 900) + $3,000 = $3,900

  18. Relevant Range • Band of volume: Where total fixed costs remain constant and variable cost per unit remains constant • Outside the relevant range, the cost either increases or decreases

  19. Objective 2 Use CVP analysis to compute breakeven point

  20. Assumptions • Expenses can be classified as either variable or fixed • The only factor that affects costs is change in volume

  21. Breakeven Point • Sales level at which operating income is zero • Sales above breakeven result in a profit • Sales below breakeven result in a loss

  22. Income Statement Approach Contribution Margin Income Statement Sales - Variable Costs Contribution Margin - Fixed Costs Operating Income

  23. Contribution Margin Approach Breakeven units sold = Fixed costs + Operating income Contribution margin per unit

  24. Contribution Margin Ratio Contribution margin ÷ Sales revenue Breakeven sales dollars = Fixed costs + Operating income Contribution margin ratio

  25. E21-17 1. Contribution margin ÷ Sales revenue $187,500 ÷ $312,500 = 60%

  26. E21-17 2. Aussie Travel Contribution Margin Income Statement Three Months Ended March 31, 2007 Sales revenue $250,000 $360,000 Variable Costs (40%) (100,000)(144,000) Contribution Margin (60%) $150,000 $216,000 Fixed Costs (170,000)(170,000) Operating Income $(20,000) $46,000

  27. E21-17 2. Breakeven sales dollars = Fixed costs + Operating income Contribution margin ratio $170,000 + $0 .60 $283,333

  28. E21-18 1. Contribution margin = Sales–Variable costs = $1.70 - $0.85 = $0.85 2. Breakeven units sold = Fixed costs + Operating income Contribution margin per unit ($85,000 + $0) / $0.85 = 100,000 units 100,000 units x $1.70 = $170,000

  29. Objective 3 Use CVP analysis for profit planning and graph relations

  30. Plan Profits Example: The following information is available for Conte Company Sale price per unit $30 Variable costs per unit 21 Total fixed costs $180,000 Target operating income $90,000 How many units must be sold to meet the targeted operating income?

  31. Plan Profits Sales – variable costs – fixed costs = operating income $30x – $21x - $180,000 = $90,000 $9x = $270,000 x = 30,000 units

  32. Preparing a CVP Chart Step 1: • Choose a sales volume • Plot point for total sales revenue • Draw sales revenue line from origin

  33. Preparing a CVP Chart

  34. Preparing a CVP Chart Step 2: Draw the fixed cost line

  35. Preparing a CVP Chart

  36. Preparing a CVP Chart Step 3: Draw the total cost line ( fixed plus variable)

  37. Preparing a CVP Chart

  38. Preparing a CVP Chart Step 4: Identify the breakeven point and the areas of operating income and loss

  39. Preparing a CVP Chart Breakeven point Profit Loss

  40. Profit E21-21 Breakeven point Total Costs Fixed Costs Revenues

  41. Objective 4 Use CVP methods to perform sensitivity analysis

  42. Sensitivity Analysis • “What if” analysis • What if the sales price changes? • What if costs change?

  43. E21-22 Sale price per student $200 Variable costs per student 120 Total fixed costs $50,000 1. Contribution margin per unit: $200 – 120 = $80 Breakeven point: $50,000 ÷ $80 = 625 students

  44. E21-22 Sale price per student $180 Variable costs per student 120 Total fixed costs $50,000 2. Contribution margin per unit: $180 – 120 = $60 Breakeven point: $50,000 ÷ $60 = 833 students

  45. E21-22 Sale price per student $200 Variable costs per student 110 Total fixed costs $50,000 2. Contribution margin per unit: $200 – 110 = $90 Breakeven point: $50,000 ÷ $90 = 556 students

  46. E21-22 Sale price per student $200 Variable costs per student 120 Total fixed costs $40,000 1. Contribution margin per unit: $200 – 120 = $80 Breakeven point: $40,000 ÷ $80 = 500 students

  47. Margin of Safety • Excess of expected sales over breakeven sales • Drop in sales that the company can absorb before incurring a loss

  48. E21-23 Margin of safety = Expected sales – breakeven sales Expected sales: Sales – variable costs – fixed costs = operating income 1x - .70x - $9,000 = $12,000 .30x = $21,000 x = $70,000

  49. E21-23 Margin of safety = Expected sales – breakeven sales Breakeven sales: Sales – variable costs – fixed costs = operating income 1x - .70x - $9,000 = $0 .30x = $9,000 x = $30,000

  50. E21-23 Margin of safety = Expected sales – breakeven sales = $70,000 - $30,000 = $40,000