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Tools of a Biologist

Tools of a Biologist

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Tools of a Biologist

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  1. Tools of a Biologist

  2. Microscopes: number one tool of a biologist • Micro= Scope= • Small -to view A microscope is an instrument used to view very small objects. In biology we will use it to view…. living cells and unicellular organisms.

  3. Compound Light Microscope

  4. There are 3 types of microscopes used in biology: 1. Compound light microscope -Compound- look through 2 lenses at the same time in order to properly magnify the organism.

  5. Total magnification: low power: ocular lens x10 low objective x4 -------------- x40 medium power: ocular lens x10 low objective x10 -------------- x100 high power: ocular lens x10 low objective x40 -------------- x400

  6. Compound light microscope: -light -light must pass through the diaphragm and through the object. -object must be “thin” or transparent so the light can pass through it. -Diaphragm: regulates the amount of light that can pass through. -Best setting of the diaphragm is #2

  7. Staining The purpose is to: add color to a cell so that the cell and its structures can be seen more clearly through a microscope.

  8. Limit of Resolution -is the point at which you see an item most clearly. Any magnification above or below that point will results in the object looking blurry.

  9. Type 2: Stereoscope -Used to view the surface of objects which are too large for light to pass through them. -Uses 2 lights to illuminate the surface of the object. -Stereo means “3 dimensional” -Provides a 3-D detailed look at the surface of an object.

  10. -look through • 2 ocular lenses • -magnifies between x10 to x60

  11. Type 3: Electron Microscopes Uses electrons to form an image and NOT light Has a very high limit of resolution. -can see items very clearly at any magnification -can magnify up to 500,000x and still be clear • Object is placed in a vacuum • No air • No oxygen • Organism is DEAD

  12. Two types of electron microscopes: 1. T.E.M. ~ Transmission Electron Microscope • Produces a 2-D, black and white image of inside of a cell.

  13. Produces a 3-D, black and white image of the surface of an object. 2. S.E.M. ~ Scanning Electron Microscope

  14. Additional tools of a biologist: Tool used to separate the components of a mixture by their different densities. • Chromatography:

  15. Link to graphing