Chapter 10 Statement of Cash Flows
Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: • Explain the concept of the statement of cash flows. • Classify activities affecting cash as operating, investing, or financing activities. • Use the direct method to measure cash flows. • Determine cash flows from income statement and balance sheet accounts. • Use the indirect method to calculate cash flows from operations.
Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: • Relate depreciation to cash flows provided by operating activities. • Reconcile net income to cash provided by operating activities. • Adjust for gains and losses from fixed asset sales and debt extinguishments in the statement of cash flows (Appendix 10A). • Use the T-account approach to prepare the cash flow statement (Appendix 10B).
Overview of Statementof Cash Flows • The statement of cash flows provides a thorough explanation of the changes that occurred in a firm’s cash balance during the entire accounting period. • The statement of cash flows reports cash receipts and payments of a company during a given period for operating, financing, and investing activities. • “Cash” includes cash and cash equivalents.
Purposes of Cash Flow Statement • The FASB requires a statement of cash flows. • It shows the relationship of net income to changes in cash balances. • It reports past cash flows as an aid to: • Predicting future cash flows • Evaluating the way management generates and uses cash • Determining a company’s ability to pay interest and dividends and to pay debts when they are due • It identifies changes in the mix of productive assets.
Purposes of Cash Flow Statement • The statement of cash flows, along with the income statement, explains why balance sheet items have changed during the period. • The balance sheet shows the status of a company at a point in time. • The statement of cash flows and the income statement show the performance of a company over a period of time. December 2003
Purposes of Cash Flow Statement • The relationship among the balance sheet, income statement, and statement of cash flows: Balance Sheet December 31, 20X3 Balance Sheet December 31, 20X2 Income Statement Statement of Cash Flows
Typical Activities Affecting Cash • Cash is affected by two primary areas of a firm. • Operating management - largely concerned with the major day-to-day activities that generate revenues and expenses • Financial management - largely concerned with where to get cash and how to use cash for the benefit of the entity
Typical Activities Affecting Cash • Operating activities - transactions that affect the income statement • Investing activities - activities that involve (1) providing and collecting cash as a lender or as an owner of securities and (2) acquiring and disposing of plant, property, equipment, and other long-term productive assets • Financing activities - activities that include obtaining resources as a borrower or issuer of securities and repaying creditors and owners
Cash inflows Collections from customers Interest and dividends collected Other operating receipts Cash outflows Cash payments to suppliers Cash payments to employees Interest and tax payments Other operating cash payments Typical Activities Affecting Cash Typical operating activities
Cash inflows Sale of property, plant, and equipment Sale of securities that are not cash equivalents Receipt of loan repayments Cash outflows Purchase of property, plant, and equipment Purchase of securities that are not cash equivalents Making loans Typical Activities Affecting Cash Typical investing activities
Cash inflows Borrowing cash from creditors Issuing equity securities Issuing debt securities Cash outflows Repayment of amounts borrowed Repurchase of equity shares (including treasury stock) Payment of dividends Typical Activities Affecting Cash Typical financing activities
Approaches to Calculating theCash Flow from Operating Activities • Two approaches may be used to compute cash flow from operating activities. • Direct method - the method that calculates net cash provided by operating activities as collections minus operating distributions • Indirect method - the method that adjusts the accrual net income to reflect only cash receipts and outlays • Under either method, the final cash flow from operating activities will be the same.
Approaches to Calculating theCash Flow from Operating Activities • Under the direct method, income statement amounts are adjusted for changes in related asset and liability accounts. • Each revenue and expense account calculated under the accrual method is adjusted to reflect the actual cash paid or received. • Under the indirect method, accrual net incomeis adjusted to reflect only cash transactions.
Approaches to Calculating theCash Flow from Operating Activities • The FASB prefers the direct method because it shows operating cash receipts and payments in a way that is easy for investors to understand. • The indirect method is more common because many people are used to thinking in terms of net income.
Transactions Affecting Cash Flows from All Sources Effects of operating transactions on cash: Sales of goods and services for cash + Sales of goods and services on credit 0 Receive dividends or interest + Collection of accounts receivable + Recognize cost of goods sold 0 Purchase inventory for cash - Purchase inventory on credit 0 Pay trade accounts payable - “0” denotes that the transaction has no effect on cash.
Transactions Affecting Cash Flows from All Sources Effects of operating transactions on cash: Accrue operating expenses 0 Pay operating expenses - Accrue taxes 0 Pay taxes - Accrue interest 0 Pay interest - Prepay expenses for cash - Write off prepaid expenses 0 Charge depreciation or amortization 0 “0” denotes that the transaction has no effect on cash.
Transactions Affecting Cash Flows from All Sources Effects of investing activities on cash: Purchase fixed assets for cash - Purchase fixed assets by issuing debt 0 Sell fixed assets + Purchase securities that are not cash equivalents - Sell securities that are not cash equivalents + Make a loan - “0” denotes that the transaction has no effect on cash.
Transactions Affecting Cash Flows from All Sources Effects of financing transactions on cash: Increase long-term or short-term debt + Reduce long-term or short-term debt - Sell common or preferred shares + Repurchase or retire common or preferred shares - Purchase treasury stock - Pay dividends - Convert debt to common stock 0 Reclassify long-term debt to short-term debt 0 “0” denotes that the transaction has no effect on cash.
Cash Flow and Earnings • The income statement and the statement of cash flows fill different critical information needs. • The income statement shows how a company’s owners’ equity changes as a result of operations. • It matches revenues and expenses using the accrual concept and provides a measure of economic activity. • The statement of cash flows focuses on the net cash flow from operating activities.
A Detailed Exampleof the Direct Method ECO-BAG COMPANY Balance Sheet (in thousands) December 31, 20X3 and 20X2 Current assets: Current liabilities: Cash $ 16 $ 25 Accounts payable $ 74 $ 6 Accounts receivable 45 25 Wages and salaries payable 25 4 Inventory 100 60 Total current assets $161$110 Total current liabilities 99 10 Fixed assets, gross 581 330 Long-term debt 125 5 Accum. depreciation (101) (110) Stockholders’ equity 417315 Net 480 220 Total liabilities and Total assets $641 $330 stockholders’ equity $641 $330 ======== ======== ======== ========
A Detailed Exampleof the Direct Method ECO-BAG COMPANY Statement of Income (in thousands) for the Year Ended December 31, 20X3 Sales $200 Costs and expenses: Cost of goods sold $100 Wages and salaries 36 Depreciation 17 Interest 4 Total costs and expenses 157 Income before income taxes 43 Income taxes 20 Net income $ 23 ========
A Detailed Exampleof the Direct Method ECO-BAG COMPANY Statement of Cash Flows (in thousands) for the Year Ended December 31, 20X3 CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES: Cash collections from customers $ 180 Cash payments: To suppliers $ 72 To employees 15 For interest 4 For taxes 20 Total cash payments (111) Net cash provided by operating activities $ 69
A Detailed Exampleof the Direct Method ECO-BAG COMPANY Statement of Cash Flows (in thousands) for the Year Ended December 31, 20X3 (continued) CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES: Purchases of fixed assets $(287) Proceeds from sale of fixed assets 10 Net cash used by investing activities (277)
A Detailed Exampleof the Direct Method ECO-BAG COMPANY Statement of Cash Flows (in thousands) for the Year Ended December 31, 20X3 (continued) CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES: Proceeds from issue of long-term debt $120 Proceeds from issue of common stock 98 Dividends paid (19) Net cash provided by financing activities 199 Net decrease in cash (9) Cash, December 31, 20X2 25 Cash, December 31, 20X3 $ 16 ========
A Detailed Exampleof the Direct Method • The first step in developing the statement of cash flows is to compute the amount of the change in cash from the beginning to the end of the period. • This calculation is often included at the bottom of the statement. • The net change is added to the beginning balance to compute the ending balance.
A Detailed Exampleof the Direct Method • In this example, cash decreases by $9,000. • Operating activities contribute $69,000 cash during the period. • Investing activities use $277,000 cash during the period. • Financing activities contribute $199,000 cash during the period. • This example shows how a firm may have net income but still have a decline in cash.
Changes in theBalance Sheet Equation • The balance sheet equation can be rearranged as follows: Cash = Liabilities + Equity - Noncash Assets or DCash = DL + DSE - DNCA Any change (D) in a noncash item (liability, equity, or asset) must be accompanied by a change in cash to keep the equation balanced. • If a noncash item changes, what effect does it have on cash?
Changes in theBalance Sheet Equation • The statement of cash flows focuses on the change in the noncash accounts as a way of explaining how and why the amount of cash changes during a given period. Change in cash = Change in all noncash accounts or What happened to cash = Why it happened
Computing Cash Flows fromOperating Activities • Collections from sales to customers are usually the largest source of operating cash inflows. • Disbursements for purchases of goods to be sold and operating expenses are usually the largest sources of operating cash outflows. • Operating cash inflows minus operating cash outflows equals the net cash provided by (or used by) operating activities.
Working from Income Statement Amounts to Cash Amounts • Accountants often compute collections and other operating cash flow items from figures in the income statement. • Many accountants use the balance sheet along with additional information and familiarity with the causes of certain changes in balance sheet amounts to compute the cash flow items. • However, many accounting systems are not capable of providing detailed information needed for that method.
Working from Income Statement Amounts to Cash Amounts • In our example, $180,000 was collected from customers. That amount is determined as follows: Sales $200,000 • Beginning accounts receivable 25,000 Potential collections $225,000 • Ending accounts receivable 45,000 Cash collections from customers $180,000 =============== or Sales $200,000 Decrease (increase) in accounts receivable (20,000) Cash collections from customers $180,000 =============== • Note that the increase in A/R means that sales > collections.
Working from Income Statement Amounts to Cash Amounts • The difference between cost of goods sold and cash payments to suppliers can be determined by looking at inventory and accounts payable. Ending inventory $100,000 • Cost of goods sold 100,000 Inventory to account for $200,000 • Beginning inventory (60,000) Purchases of inventory $140,000 =============== Beginning trade accounts payable $ 6,000 • Purchases of inventory 140,000 Total amount to be paid in cash $146,000 • Ending trade accounts payable (74,000) Accounts paid in cash $ 72,000 ===============
Working from Income Statement Amounts to Cash Amounts • The effects of inventory and accounts payable on the previous slide can be combined into one calculation as follows: Cost of goods sold $100,000 Increase (decrease) in inventory 40,000 Decrease (increase) in trade accounts payable (68,000) Payments to suppliers $ 72,000 ===============
Working from Income Statement Amounts to Cash Amounts • Cash payments to employees can be determined by examining wages and salaries payable. Beginning wages and salaries payable $ 4,000 • Wages and salaries expense 36,000 Total to be paid in cash $ 40,000 • Ending wages and salaries payable (25,000) Cash payments to employees $ 15,000 ============== or Wages and salaries expense $ 36,000 Decrease (increase) in wages and salaries payable (21,000) Cash payments to employees $ 15,000 ==============
Working from Income Statement Amounts to Cash Amounts • Notice in this example that both interest payable and income taxes payable were zero at the beginning and end of the period. • This means that the entire amounts of interest expense and income tax expense were incurred and paid during the period, so the cash flows are the amounts of the expenses, $4,000 and $20,000, respectively.
Comparison of Income Statement and Cash Flow Statement • Most accrual-based revenues and expenses are naturally linked to related asset or liability accounts. • The cash effects on the income statement accounts are moderated by changes in their related balance sheet accounts. • The balance sheet approach relies on adjusting accrual net income for changes in related balance sheet accounts.
Comparison of Income Statement and Cash Flow Statement • A summary of the balance sheet approach: Subtract Increase or Add Decrease Change in Related Noncash Asset Income Statement Amount Cash Flow Amount Opposite Effects Change in Related Liability Add Increase or Subtract Decrease
Comparison of Income Statement and Cash Flow Statement • Remember, to determine whether to add or subtract an increase or a decrease, any change in a noncash asset, liability, or equity account must be accompanied by change in cash that keeps the balance sheet equation in balance. DCash = DL + DSE - DNCA
Comparison of Income Statement and Cash Flow Statement • Common adjustments to convert income statement amounts to cash flow amounts: Income statement Related Noncash Related Amount Asset Liability Sales revenue Accounts receivable Unearned revenue Cost of goods sold Merchandise inventory Accounts payable Wages expense Prepaid wages Wages payable Rent expense Prepaid rent Rent payable Insurance expense Prepaid insurance Insurance payable Depreciation expense Property, plant, & equipment Amortization expense Intangible assets
Computing Cash Flows from Investing and Financing Activities • Cash flows from investing activities - arise from the sale and purchase of property, plant, and equipment and other long-lived assets • Cash flows from financing activities - arise from issuing debt or equity or repurchasing debt or equity
Computing Cash Flows from Investing and Financing Activities • The idea behind the investing and financing activities sections is that long-lived assets are investments; sources of capital finance the purchase of these investments.
Computing Cash Flows from Investing and Financing Activities • Analysis of balance sheet items for investing and financing activities: • Increases in cash (cash inflows) stem from • Increases in liabilities or stockholders’ equity • Decreases in noncash assets • Decreases in cash (cash outflows) stem from • Decreases in liabilities or stockholders’ equity • Increases in noncash assets
Computing Cash Flows from Investing and Financing Activities • Changes in fixed assets can usually be explained by: • Assets acquired • Asset dispositions • Depreciation expense Increase in net plant assets = Acquisitions - Disposals - Depreciation
Computing Cash Flows from Investing and Financing Activities • Changes in stockholders’ equity can be explained by: • New issuances of stock • Net income • Dividends Increase in stockholders’ equity = New issuance + Net income - Dividends
Noncash Investing andFinancing Activities • Noncash items do not affect cash, so they do not belong in the statement of cash flows. • Because noncash transactions are similar to cash transactions, readers of the statements of cash flows should be informed of such transactions. • Such items must be included in a separate schedule accompanying the statement of cash flows.
The Crisis of Negative Cash Flow • Although investors make many decisions based on net income, earnings numbers do not tell the whole story of what is happening inside a company. • Sometimes companies can show lots of net income, but that net income comes from selling off assets to meet its obligations.
Preparing a Statement of Cash Flows - The Indirect Method • In calculating cash flows from operating activities, the alternative to the direct method is the indirect method. • The indirect method is generally more convenient. • The indirect method reconciles accrual net income to cash flows from operating activities.
Reconciliation of Net Income to Net Cash Provided by Operations • The indirect method begins with net income. • Additions or deductions are made for changes in related asset or liability accounts (items that affect net income and net cash flow differently). • If a company uses the direct method, the FASB requires such a reconciliation using the indirect method.
Reconciliation of Net Income to Net Cash Provided by Operations • Items included in the reconciliation: • Depreciation is added back to net income because it was deducted in arriving at net income, but it does not represent a use of cash. • Increases in noncash current assets result in less cash flow from operations, so such increases are deducted from net income. • Decreases in noncash current assets result in more cash flow from operations, so such decreases are added back to net income.