Music of South Asia India, Nepal, and Iran
India The music of India includes multiple varieties of folk, popular, pop, classical music and R&B. India's classical music tradition has a history spanning millennia and developed over several eras. It remains fundamental to the lives of Indians today as sources of spiritual inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. India is made up of several dozen ethnic groups, speaking their own languages and dialects, having distinct cultural traditions.
Classical Music There are two main types of classical music in India: Carnatic and Hindustani. Carnatic music is found predominantly in the peninsular regions. Hindustani music is found in the northern and central regions.
Hindustani Hindustani music is an Indian classical music tradition that goes back to around 1000 BC. It further developed circa the 13th and 14th centuries AD with Persian influences and from existing religious and folk music. The practice of singing based on notes was popular from when the hymns in Sama Veda, a sacred text, were sung and not chanted Classical genres are dhrupad, dhamar, khyal, tarana and sadra.
Carnatic Carnatic music can be traced back to the 15th - 16th centuries AD. It is one of the oldest musical forms that continue to survive today. The form itself is reputed to have been one of the gifts bestowed on man by the gods of Hindu mythology. Carnatic music is melodic, with improvised variations. It consists of a composition with improvised embellishments added to the piece. The main emphasis is on the vocals as most compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed in a singing style (known as gāyaki). Indian how-to
Folk Music Bihu: the festival of New Year of Assam falling on mid April. This is a festival of nature and mother earth where the first day is for the cows and buffalos. Second day is for the man. Bihu dances and songs accompanied by traditional drums and wind instruments are essential part of this festival Bihu
Folk Music Dandiya: a form of dance-oriented folk music that has also been adapted for pop music. The present musical style is derived from the traditional musical accompaniment to the folk dance. It is practiced mainly in the state of Gujrat. Dandiya,
Folk Music Ganasangeet: music generally sung in chorus carrying some social message. The songs are usually about Freedom, community strength, patriotism. Due to the British occupation in India, a lot of protest songs about anti-imperialism/pro-socialism have been written in India. Ganasangeet
Folk Music Uttarakhandi folk music had its root in the lap of nature. The music is to relate the feel and the touch of nature and subjects related to nature. The folk music primarily is related to the various festivals, religious traditions, folk stories and simple life of the people of Uttarakhand. The songs are a reflection of the Cultural Heritage and the way people live their lives in the Himalayas. Uttarakhandi
Folk Music Lavani comes from the word Lavanya which means beauty. This is one of the most popular forms of dance and music. Traditionally, the songs are sung by female artistes, but male artistes may occasionally sing Lavanis. Lavani is a combination of traditional song and dance, which are performed to the beats of 'Dholaki', a drum-like instrument. Dance is performed by women wearing nine-yard saris. They are sung in a quick tempo. Lavani originated in the arid region of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh Lavani, BollywoodLavani
Folk Music RabindraSangeet is a library of songs numbering more than 2,000 written by Rabindranath Tagore. The form is primarily influenced by Hindustani classical, Carnatic, western music, and different folk songs of India. Many singers base their entire careers on the singing of Tagore musical masterpieces. The national anthem of India and national anthem of Bangladesh are RabindraSangeets RabindraSangeet, and again
Folk Music Rajasthan has a very diverse cultural collection of musician castes. The melody of Rajasthan evokes from a variety of instruments. The essence of Rajasthani music is derived from the synthesis of string instruments, percussion instruments and wind instruments accompanied by melodies of folk singers. It enjoys a respectable presence in Bollywood music as well. Rajasthani
Popular Music The biggest form of Indian popular music is songs from Indian films. Film music makes up 72% of the music sales in India. The film industry of India supported music by maintaining reverence to classical music while utilizing the western orchestration to support Indian melodies. Classic, song,
Popular Music In the new millennium, American hip-hop has featured Indian filmi. Mainstream hip-hop artists have sampled songs from Bollywood movies and have collaborated with Indian artists. Examples include Timbaland's "Indian Flute", Erick Sermon and Redman's "React", Slum Village's "Disco", and Truth Hurts' "Addictive", and The Black Eyed Peas’ "Don't Phunk With My Heart"
Popular Music In the late 1970s and early 1980s, rock and roll fusions with Indian music were well-known throughout Europe and North America. This was called Raga Rock. Jazz fusions also became prevalent. Though the Indian music craze soon died down among mainstream audiences, die hard fans and immigrants continued the fusion. Sometimes, the music of India will fuse with the traditional music of other countries. For example Delhi 2 Dublin, and Bhangraton.
Popular Music Indian Pop music, or Indipop, was originally a fusion of folk and classical music (Ko-Ko-Korina). After the 1960s, it fused together with film music without many breakout stars outside of the film industry. Recently, Indian pop has taken an interesting turn with the "remixing" of songs from past Indian movie songs, new beats being added to them. Pop, Remix, American Bollywood
Popular Music The rock music "scene" in India is small compared to the filmi or fusion musicality "scenes" but as of recent years has come into its own, achieving a cult status of sorts. Rock music in India has its origins in 1960s when international stars such as The Beatles visited India and brought their music with them. As of now, the rock music scene in India is quietly growing day by day and gathering more support. With the introduction of MTV in the early 1990s, Indians began to be exposed to various forms of rock such as grunge and speed metal. This influence can be clearly seen in many Indian bands today.
Popular Music Hip hop music in India had started at around 1990 and Baba Sehgal is credited as India's first rapper. Hip Hop music became all the more famous with the song 'Pettai Rap' from the movie “Kadhalan.” Rap/Hip Hop was often used in the regional movies as fillers in between songs and has started to become main stream songs. Hip hop exposure has since grown in both India, and the world, with it becoming ever popular with today's younger generation. While, no rapper of Indian descent has made it on the big stage, many Western rap artists perform in India.
Popular Music Patriotic feelings have been instigated within Indians through music, since the era of freedom struggle. Jana GanaMana, the national anthem of India by Rabindranath Tagore, is largely credited for uniting India through music. Post-independence songs such as Mile Sur MeraTumhara have been responsible for national integration and unity in diversity
And I couldn’t really find a place for this… Or this…
Nepal With more than fifty ethnicities, the music of this country is a highly dispersed phenomenon. Although genres like pop, rock, folk, and Classical music exist, a huge number of such genres are yet to be cataloged. Many musical bands exist in Nepal, with a huge number in Kathmandu - most of the recent ones focused in pop and rock. Rap has been known to emerge on the charts from time to time.
Classical Music Classical music genres are named after the ethnicity of the people who perform it. There is virtually no boundary between folk and classical genres. They are one in the same Newari Music: developed and flourished during the Medieval era Deuda Music: various traditional genres.
Classical Music Gurung Music: Gurungs have an ancient tradition of Rodhi where young people meet, sing and dance to folk songs, and share their views. Young men and women at Rodhi often sing call-and-response songs called dohori, which are largely improvised. Some musical dances like Ghantu and Chudka are still in existence, and are still performed in many Gurung villages. These dances are many hundreds of years old, and are performed either solo or in a group. Music also plays a big role in the Gurung ritual of Argum, which is performed when someone in the community dies.
More About Dohori Dohori is Nepali Folk song. This is unique type of song in world. Dohoro means from two side,or a debate. This debate is in rhythm, and involves quick and witty poetry. The two teams in Dohori usually involves boys in one group girls in the other. The song is started with a question usually from the boys side. The girl follows the question with a quick response and continues the musical conversation. Dohori songs can last for long time. The length of the Dohari depends on the quick thinking ability of the players. Some Doharis have lasted as long as seven days. They start singing in evening and end at dawn.
More About Dohori • Love and marriage are usually the topic of the debate. The male expresses his love or feelings to the girl in the song and girl may or may not respond positively for various reasons. An example of this is as follows: • Boy: Hey girl you are beautiful with long hair, give your life to me and of you I will take care. • Girl: How can you ask for my life, I am worried. I already have two children and am married. • Boy: Come with me, I will take care of your children and you. I will always love you, don’t worry, we won’t have children anew. • Girl: Hey don't talk nonsense, I am not yours and will never be. Beware of my husband’s kick who is sitting behind me.
Classical Music Kirant Music: The Yakthungs have various forms of dance, songs and musical instruments. DhaanNach(“paddy dance”) and DholNach("drum dance") are popular symbolics. Many forms of their dance involve rituals or religious offerings towards Mundhum (native Kiranti religion). Traditional dance and songs are also practiced for weddings, festivals or simply gatherings.
Classical Music Tamang Music: The tamang community is well known for Damphu. Tamangselo music is based on the usage of Damphu and Tungna. It is said that British people got an idea of making Drum Sets from Damphu during their stay at India. Western and Indian instruments are also found in some modernTamangSelo music. Recently due to the re-mixing trend of classic Nepali songs, TamangSelo tuned songs have been a hit in Nepali radio stations. And then there’s this…
Classical Music Magar Music: Salai Jo and Sorathi are the two unique and exclusive musical genre of Magar music.
And to take a break… This
Introduced Westernized Music… Rock Metal Rap Pop Hip Hop Dance
Annual Hits FM Music Awards Radio station Hits FM was established in 1996 with the intention to help the music industry grow. Since then it has been greatly involved in encouraging and promoting Nepali artists and music. Then came the idea to hold an Annual Hits FM Music Award ceremony, which was held for the first time in 1998 with seven categories. It was the first ever musical award to be organized by a private company at a national level. The 14th Award Ceremony had nineteen categories, including a Life Time Achievement Award and performances by top Nepali artists. The songs and albums nominated in each category are based on the votes of the public and the winner is then chosen by an independent panel of judges.
Iran • The music of Iran has thousands of years of history, as seen in the archeological documents of the earliest ancient cultures. • Iranian music is divided into two categories: • The science of Music, or Musicology: considered a branch of mathematics, it has always been held in high regards in Persia/Iran • Music performance(Tarab, Navakhteh, Tasneef, Taraneh or more recently Muzik): this has had an uneasy relationship with the religious authorities and with society as a whole
History of Music in Iran • In ancient Iran musicians held socially respectable positions. We know that the aristocrats made use of musicians, but we do not know what that music was like. • Troubadours (Gosans) were highly sought after as entertainers. • A few ancient Iranian musicians are said to be highly influencial: • Barbad: invented the lute and Iranian music traditions and scales • Zaryab is often credited with being the greatest influence over Spanish music
Hierarchy of Music Music in Iran is categorized into a hierarchy of importance, authenticity, and technical value. The position of a particular work of music often depends on the music genre and its relationship to music theory.
Hierarchy of Music The academic Authentic Persian Music (Musiq-i-Asil) is strongly based on the theories of sound aesthetics as defined in the early centuries of Islam. It also preserves traditional melodies that are often attributed to the musicians of the Persian imperial court. Dastgah is the music of those who have a greater share of, or affect to be in possession of, refined taste and high culture. It has always been the music of the elite. Generally is instrumental, though occasionally will have vocals.
Hierarchy of Music The martial music of Persia (MusiqiRazmi) has roots that go back to the Parthian era, as attested by Roman sources. This form of music has now been almost completely replaced by European forms ever since the modernization of the armed forces. This type of music with large drums, brass, and reed instruments was used not only at war but also in official and solemn occasions. The only modernized form of MusiqiRazmi is a much simplified form in the music of the Zurkhaneh, the traditional martial arts of Iran. The exercises of champions are regulated by a drummer or vocalist known as the Murshid.
Hierarchy of Music Religious music is quite divided. The beginnings of military music came from plays reflecting a martyrdom legend. Also includes music that is a setting for Persian mystical poetry, called Sufi music. The recitation of the Koran is not considered music by Muslims, but something more sublime. Similarly, religious liturgy (Noheh) is a category of improvised song, but is never discussed in musical terms.
Hierarchy of Music Popular music however occupies a low in respectability with the exception of folk music that plays an important role in the daily life of rural Iranians. Some of the most beautiful music composed in Iran is remembered in the folk songs in Kurdistan and Khorasan for example. Unlike other forms of music that derive from Classical Persian Music, Folk songs have greatly influenced the Dastgah system.
And last… Musical theatre is in the form of Rohozi. It is performed in a covered pool in the middle of an inner courtyard. It is considered decadent by many Iranians.
Symphonic Music Persian Symphonic Music has a long history. In fact, Opera originated from Persia much before its emergence in Europe. Iranians traditionally performed Tazeeieh, which resembles the European Opera There are also some growing attempts to combine Persian classical music and western classical music. Iran is not alien to western classical music either. Many radio stations in Tehran play Mozart's concertos on a daily basis, and many Iranians even make it to world fame and fortune.
Folk Music In general, folk music has relatively clear-cut melodic and rhythmic properties with little improvisation. The function of each folk melody determines its mood. The requirements of wedding songs, lullabies, love songs, harvest songs, dance pieces, etc., are characterized by simplicity. There are literally dozens of musical instruments of various sorts found among the rural people. In fact, each region of the country can boast instruments peculiar to itself. Iran is home to several ethnic groups, including Kurds,Bakhtiari and Baluchi peoples
Kurdish Folk Music The forms of music found in various parts of Kurdistan (Kurdish music) vary depending on the regions as well as their contact with the neighboring cultures. The poetry and the rhythms are common to both areas. There are two forms of Kurdish music. The firstis largely improvised, while the second is a defined set of rhythms and melodies.
Kurdish Folk Music The poems used in most Kurdish music are filled with stories of romance and unrequited love. Gouranis fall into several categories, each performed with specific melodies for specific occasions. Some examples are work gouranis, shepherd gouranis, romantic gouranis, religious and spiritual gouranis, festive gouranis, Chemari (mourning) gouranis, war gouranis, children gouranis, women gouranis, and Ramadan gouranis
Sunni Folk Music Due to its ethnic diversity and the existence of different languages and religious observations (Sunni and Shi'a), the musical tradition of Khorasan is very rich In the north of Khorasan, one can find the bakhshi narrating and singing, among other things, "daastans" (stories in old Persian), although they can also sing in Kurdish about the historical deeds of local figures. They accompany themselves on the dotar. In the south, the musical culture changes: the dotar is no longer present. The songs are called "sotak" and are accompanied on the "dayereh" (tambourine)
Turkmen Music The word bakhshi means instrumentalist, singer, and storyteller. As a singer, the bakhshi is more precisely a narrator of dastanand an instrumentalist who plays the dotarand who fabricates his own musical instrument. The majority of the great bards of Khorasan, regardless of their ethnic origin, sing in three languages (Turkish, Persian, and Kurdish). The bakhshidoesn't usually earn his living solely through playing music. Most often, he is also a farmer, a barber, or a teacher, etc. The Turkmen bards prefer to play in groups of two or three. In this case, the bard is accompanied by another dotar player and a person playing the kamanche.
Turkmen Music A bakhshi should not only be a good musician and have a good voice, he also needs excellent diction for telling stories. He learns his art from his father or his uncle while living under the family roof. Some acquire their apprenticeship under the tutelage of a master (ostad). The learning process evolves in three stages: 1) learning the dotar technique, 2) learning vocal techniques, 3) memorizing the stories. In the last stage, the master teaches his student a fragment of a dastan on a daily basis, so that he can memorize and recite it the next day. The bakhshi is renowned for his prodigious memory. Traditionally, the bakhshi plays at village ceremonies, but he also performs at private gatherings and in the coffee houses of the bazars. Unfortunately, nowadays, television has taken the place of the traditional bard.
Female Folk Music Women have a specific set of songs to be sung. MaryamAkhondy, a classical singer, collected such songs and published them on her album "Banu – Songs of Persian Women". It had been sung at the cradle, at the housework and work in the fields or on women's celebrations.