Chapter 1 Section 4 Biomes Contain Many Species • Objectives: • 1. Describe how biomes vary by region and how they are classified by the plant life they support • 2. Explain that different ecosystems make up biomes • 3. Describe different land and water biomes
Regions of Earth are Classified into Biomes • A biome is a large geographic area that are similar in climate and have similar organisms • Climate describes long-term weather patterns of a region (Avg. Rainfall & Avg. Temp.) • Climate and abiotic factors are important factors that influence which organisms can live where. • Biomes cover very large areas, so there are many ecosystems within biomes.
Biomes • There are six major land biomes and two major water biomes • 1. Taiga 2. Tundra • 3. Desert 4. Grassland • 5. Temperate Forest 6. Tropical Forest • Water Biomes • 1. Freshwater 2. Marine Biomes
Taiga • Found in the northern regions of the Earth • Characterized by long cold winters and short cool summers. • Temperatures range from -40 to 20 degrees Celsius • Receives 30 – 60 cm of precipitation • Evergreen (conifers) tree dominant the landscapes • Primary Consumers: Deer, Elk, Hares, Beavers • Predators: Lynx, Owls, Bears, Wolves
Tundra • Found in the northern most and southern most parts of the Earth. • A long cold winter and a short cool summer. • Temperatures range from -50 to 18 degrees Celsius • Less than 25cm of precipitation per year • Permafrost is a deep layer of permanently frozen soil (below the surface soil) • Plants: Moss, Grasses, Shrubs • Primary Consumers: Rodents, Caribou, Musk Oxen • Predators: Grizzly Bears, White Fox, Owls
Desert • Found toward the middle latitudes. • Receive less than 25cm of precipitation. • The organisms here get by on very little precipitation • Producers: Cactus, grass, shrubs • Primary Consumers: Kangaroo Rat, Ground Squirrel • Secondary Consumer: Collared Lizard, Scorpion • Predators: Snakes, Owls, Foxes
Grassland • Receive 50 – 90 cm of rainfall per year • Enough for grasses but forests • Warm summers (30 degrees Celsius) cold winters • Home to some of the largest animals on Earth • Primary Consumers: Bison, Wild Horses, Gazelle, Zebra, Elephant • Predators: Wolves, Tigers, Lions, Cheetah
Temperate Forests Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest (Taiga or Boreal)
Temperate Forest • Receive 75 – 150cm of precipitation per year • A deciduous forest contains deciduous trees (shed their leaves) Oak, Maple • A coniferous forest contains conifers • They support a wide range of animals • Primary Consumers: Mice, Chipmunks, Raccoon, Deer • Predators: Bobcats, Foxes, Coyote, Wolves, Mountain Lions
Tropical Forests • Located near the equator where the weather is warm all year (25 deg. Celsius) • It’s the wettest land biome (250 – 400 cm of rain) • More organisms live in the tropical rain forests than anywhere else on Earth • Ex. Toucan, Orangutan, Boa Constrictor, Red Eyed Tree Frog
Freshwater • Freshwater biomes are rivers, streams, lakes, ponds • Estuary is where the freshwater of a river meets the saltwater of an ocean. • They are often called marshes or wetlands.
Marine Biomes • Marine biomes are saltwater biomes. • Three main types: coastal, open ocean, deep ocean. • Beaches are part of the coastal ocean biome. • Crabs and clams thrive here. • Many types of fish and other marine animals • No plants in the open ocean. • The deep ocean is very cold and dark. • Animals here feed on materials that fall down from upper levels. • Home to many bizarre looking creatures.
Deep Ocean Organisms Viperfish Dragonfish Long-Nosed Chimaera Deep Sea Gulper Eel