The Atmosphere Alvaro Sevilla
Layers of the Atmosphere • Troposphere • Stratosphere • Mesosphere • Thermosphere • Exosphere
Troposphere • First layer • Contains half of the Earth’s atmosphere • Weather occurs in it • 15 km above Earth’s surface • Highest air´s pressure • Cloud formation found in it • Water cycle occurs in this layer.
Stratosphere • Below Stratopause • 50 km form Earth’s surface • Absorbs UV rays and makes temperature increase • 19% of the atmosphere gases are found in it. • Temperature increases with height • Altitude of stratosphere varies with latitude and seasons. • Very dry without much water vapor creating a small amount of clouds. • Air much thinner than at sea level becoming aircrafts and weather balloons reach their higher flying point.
Mesosphere • Below mesopause • Top of the stratosphere to 90 km above Earth’s surface • Lowest temperature of the layers • Meteorites burn at this layer • Air thinner than in other layers • Temperature decreases with height • Fewer air molecules to absorb heat from electromagnetic waves • CO2 molecules absorb heat as they bounce of each other and release heat as photons that take heat to higher layers.
Thermosphere • Ionosphere- highest part • Temperature increases with height. • Dense gases can make temperature reach 1500 degrees Celsius. • Made out of helium and hydrogen particles that rarely collide • Collision causes heat to be released but are very rare that’s why the temperature maintains cold. • Gases become thinner with height • 90 km to 1,000 km above earth´s surface. • A lot X rays and UV rays absorbed on the thermosphere. • As more solar rays the thermosphere expands and the top of the thermosphere varies between 500 and 1000km.
Exosphere • Atoms and molecules escape into space • Collisions very rare and permits atoms to reach velocity to escape into outer space. • Exosphere consists mainly of ionized hydrogen that reflects UV light. • Gravity and air pressure very weak.
Relationship between atmosphere and Earth. • The gases that compose the atmosphere are carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen with traces of methane, argon and ozone • Plants’ photosynthesis transform carbon dioxide into oxygen used by animals to breath. • The interaction between oxygen and UV rays form stratosphere create a protective layer called Ozone layer. • Ozone layer maintains the Earth warm as it changes UV rays into heat.
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