Emerging Trends in Probiotics Research For Human Health Hariom Yadav and Shalini Jain Animal Biochemistry Division National Dairy Research Institute Karnal-132001 (Haryana)INDIA
Probiotics concept “Probiotics are living microorganisms which upon ingestion in sufficient numbers, exert health benefits beyond basic nutrition.” Intensive research area in the world……..
Probiotics health benefits Elimination of lactose intolerance Anti-diarrheal Immunomodulatory Antidiabetic Anticarcinogenic Hypocholesterolemic Antihypertensive
Probiotics microorganisms Probitocs consist specific microbial cultures and/ or ingredients that stimulate gut micro flora capable of modifying the gastrointestinal environment which keeps the host healthy • Lactic acid producing bacteria • Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium • Yeast • Others • Commercially available products may contain pure and combined cultures of: • Lactobacillus • Bifidobacterium • Streptococcus • Pedicococcus • Aspergillus • Bacillus
Probiotics attributes • Acid tolerance • Bile tolerance • Cell surface hydrophobicity • Protoplast regeneration • Antimicrobial activity • Cholesterol removal and bile salt deconjugation • Gut colonization • Lactose removal • Protease and aminopeptidase activity
Improvements for survival of probiotics Heat from pelleting and long storage of products may render the non viability of the product. For improving the survival of probiotic cultures following practices has been applied…. • Microincapsulation :Entrapment of micro-organisms with artificial/ biological membranes/ supports/ coverings • Prebiotics :Addition of prebiotics such as inulin, fructo-oligosacchrides etc. • Other food supplements :Addition of other food additives such as fibres, vitamins etc.
Prebiotics “Prebiotics are non-digestible but fermentable oligosaccharides that are specifically designed to change the composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota with prospect to promote the health of the host.”
Synbiotics “A synbiotics is a combination of one or more probiotics and prebiotics.”
Purported mechanisms of action Free amino acids Organic acids Neutralization of dietary carcinogens β-Galactosidase activity Probiotics Oligosaccharides Immunostimulatory Cholesterol assimilation Antioxidant Short chain fatty acids Survival and adhesion competitions with pathogenic bacteria Bioactive peptides Bacteriocin
Adhesive Non-adhesive Microorganisms M = M cells of intestinal epithelium L = Lymphocytes APC = Antigen presenting cells Th = T-helper cells IL = Interleukines TGF = Tumour growth factor IFN = Interferon TNF = Tumour necrosis factor Ig = Immunoglobulin Immune Response Intestinal Epithelium M L L L APC L Th0 IgG ↑ IgM ↑ IgE ↓ B Antibody mediated response Cell mediated response TGF-β↓ IL-4 ↓ IL-10 ↓ IL-2 ↑ IFN- γ ↑ + B Th2 Th1 IgA IL-2 ↑ IFN-γ ↑ TNF-α ↑ IFN-α ↑ Viruses Tumors Natural killer cells ↑ Macrophages ↑ Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes ↑
Current trends • Anticarcinogenic: Colon, breast and others • Antidiabetic • Anti-allergic • Anti-inflammatory Diseases: IBD, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, Pouchitis and Post- operative complications • Genetically modified probiotics • Oral vaccine development
Future perspectives • Elucidate the physiological role and mechanism of action probiotics • Extent of influence of probiotics in human health using human feeding studies • Studies on human populations for colon cancer or cancer recurrence • Validate markers used for assessing probiotic function. Testing of predictions based on biomarker studies with actual results in human clinical evaluation is needed. Biomarker validated in the areas of immune system, cancer and gut microbiology is especially important. Once validated biomarkers will be useful tools to assess the dose dependence and strain specific responses. • Assess effects of probiotics on populations and activity of gut microbes. The application of gene based methods holds much promise in this field. • Improve reliability and ease of taxonomic classification of probiotic bacteria. Improve strain performance and activity.
Institutes Engaged for Probiotics Research in India Central Food Technology and Research Institute, Mysore National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh National Dairy Development Board, Anand Nestle Pvt Ltd, Panipat
Eat Probiotics foods, live healthy life So….. Eat the “good bugs” every day………. Invite them in……….. You will find they make very friendly houseguests.