“Old fuss and feathers” Election of 1852 • Democrats nominate little-known New Hampshire politician Franklin Pierce • Pierce was reliable on the issue of slavery- promised to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act and honor the Compromise of 1850 • Whigs nominate Mexican War hero Winfield Scott • Not trusted by southerners because he did not completely support the Compromise of 1850
Death of the Whig Party • Democrats won the election by a landslide • “We are slayed. The party is dead-dead-dead!”- Lewis Campbell of Ohio • Last time the Whig party nominated a candidate for President Whig Party
Kansas-Nebraska Act “The Little Giant” • Formed Kansas and Nebraska territories • Slavery in the territories will be determined by popular sovereignty • No more 36 30’ boundary for slave states • Proposed by Illinois politician Stephen Douglas and passed in 1854 • Douglas wanted a railroad from Chicago to the Pacific • Other southerners wanted a railroad from New Orleans through Texas into Southern California • To gain their support for his railroad, he promised to open up the territory west of Missouri to slavery • His railroad wasn’t approved until 1862
Reactions Anti-Slavery Northerners Pro-Slavery Southerners Strongly supported the bill Rushed to get people into Kansas Slavery supporters from Missouri entered Kansas just to vote for the Legislature Formed a pro-slavery government in Lecompton • Outraged • Sent anti-Nebraska petitions to Congress • Rushed to get people into Kansas • Formed an anti-slavery government in Topeka
Bleeding Kansas Series of violent political confrontations involving anti-slavery and pro-slavery groups in Kansas, set in motion by the Kansas-Nebraska Act, resulted in 55 deaths • Sack of Lawrence • Pottawatomie Massacre • Civil War breaks out in Kansas • Violence in the Senate
Sack of Lawrence by Pro-Slavery Forces Lawrence was seen as a symbol of the anti-slavery movement so 700 pro-slavery men rode into Lawrence and terrorized the town, destroying buildings and printing presses.
Pottawatomie Massacre In response to the Sack of Lawrence, John Brown and anti-Slavery forces attacked pro-slavery forces at Pottawatomie Creek and killed 5. Kansas soon collapsed into Civil War.
An Attack in the Senate! Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts (abolitionist) gave a speech criticizing pro-slavery efforts in Kansas and insulted a relative of South Carolina Representative Preston Brooks. Brooks attached Sumner by beating him with his cane until it broke. Sumner was so badly hurt he was unable to return to the Senate for 3 years.
New Political Divisions • July 5, 1854, Hundreds of Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, and abolitionists joined in Jackson, Michigan to form the Republican Party • Ran on a platform of opposition to Slavery
Election of 1856 Democrats • Nominate Pennsylvanian James Buchanan • He is far from the Kansas-Nebraska Act controversy “The Bachelor” Republicans • Nominate John C. Fremont • Has little political experience, but is strongly anti-slavery
Results • Many Southerners said they would not accept a Republican victory • Buchanan won the election of 1856
Dred Scott • Scott was a slave on tour with an army surgeon • They had traveled into free territory • Scott sued for his freedom, arguing he had become free while living in free territory • Went to the Supreme Court in 1856 • Brought up 3 questions • Is Scott a citizen? No, because he’s African-American. • Did living on free soil make him free? He was from Missouri, so he was bound to Missouri laws. • Is a ban on slavery in parts of the Louisiana Purchase constitutional? No, slaves were considered property and you cannot ban someone from taking their property into a federal territory
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Abraham Lincoln Stephen Douglas Illinois Senator Creator of the Kansas-Nebraska Act Democrat • Native of Kentucky • Served in Illinois legislature and Congress • Whig, became a Republican • Series of 7 debates for control of the Illinois Legislature • Main issue discussed was slavery • Douglas won the Senate seat • Lincoln asked Douglas to decide between Popular Sovereignty and the Dred Scott decision in which the Government cannot ban slavery • Douglas famously put fort the Freeport Doctrinein which he claimed the issue of slavery should be decided by popular sovereignty