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Federalist Papers. 1787. Malaspina Great Books. Outline of Presentation. Context – 18th C. North America Declaration of Independence 1776 The United States Constitution 1787-9 Federalist Papers Anti-Federalist Papers (Objections). Outline Continued.
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Federalist Papers 1787 Malaspina Great Books
Outline of Presentation • Context – 18th C. North America • Declaration of Independence 1776 • The United States Constitution 1787-9 • Federalist Papers • Anti-Federalist Papers (Objections)
Outline Continued 6. Federalist Highlights (Republicanism, Separation of Powers, Free Government, no Bill of Rights) 7. Significance of Federalist as Enlightenment Project
2. Declaration of Independence 1776 Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
Declaration of Independence When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, …
We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
4. Federalist Papers John Jay (1745- 1829) Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804 ) James Madison (1751- 1836)
Anti-Federalist Federalism will Destroy Liberty “…It might be here shewn, that the power in the federal legislative, to raise and support armies at pleasure, as well in peace as in war, and their controul over the militia, tend, not only to a consolidation of the government, but the destruction of liberty…” - Brutus
Anti-Federalist President will have too much power “… In the first place the office of president of the United States appears to me to be clothed with such powers as are dangerous...an elective king…to lay the foundation for a military government, which is the worst of all tyrannies…” - An Old Whig
Anti-Federalist Large Republics Cannot be Free“ In so extensive a republic, the great officers of government would soon become above the controul of the people...They will use the power, when they have acquired it, to the purposes of gratifying their own interest and ambition...”
Anti-Federalist Separation of Powers is an Illusion Such various, extensive, and important powers combined in one body of men, are inconsistent with all freedom… "when the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty…"
6. Federalist Highlights (Republicanism, Separation of Powers, Free Government, no Bill of Rights)
Federalist Highlight Large Federal Republic (10) In a federal republic, power is divided vertically between a general (federal) government and state governments. Two levels of government, each supreme in its own sphere, can exercise powers separately and directly on the people.
Federalist Highlight Republicanism (10) A republican government is one "in which the scheme of representation takes place." It is based on the consent of the governed because power is delegated to a small number of citizens who are elected by the rest.
Federalist Highlight Separation of Powers (51) Executive: Power to appoint judges, sole power to wage war Legislative: Power to write laws, sole power to declare war Judicial: Sole power to interpret the law and apply it to particular disputes
Federalist Highlight Free Government Republicanism, federalism, and separation of powers are characteristics of free government…free government is designed to guard against the most insidious danger of government by the people--the tyranny of the many over the few.
Federalist Highlight Bill of Rights (84) The Federalist papers are remarkable for their opposition to what later became the United States Bill of Rights (first 10 amendments) ... many people feared that this would later be interpreted as a list of the only rights that people had.
Enlightenment Significance • Influences of John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Montesquieu, and Thomas Hobbes. • best form of government balanced the selfish needs of the individual with the need to protect the whole community
Enlightenment Significance • too much liberty can be bad for an orderly society • attempt to limit power of federal government • influence of David Hume on Madison