MESSING WITH THEIR HEADS Using Discrepant Events to Arouse Interest and Combat Misconceptions
What is a discrepant event? A discrepant event causes a discrepancy in what is physically observed and what the observer thinks should happen.
How do I do a discrepant event? • The Set Up • The Event • The Explanation
Essential Elements of Discrepant Events • Arouse your students interest -a story, a challenge, etc… • Use simple materials • Use multiple gateways -demonstrate, pick a volunteer, involve students in a related activity • Include examples • Show joy and enthusiasm
Why do a discrepant event? • What students know is true is not what they witness, creating cognitive dissonance • Cognitive dissonance makes the student wonder opening their minds to alternative explanations
When do I use discrepant events? • To engage students in learning about a concept, issue, or skill. • To create an opportunity to unlearn a predetermined misconception.
Can you prove that it works? Positive influence on content achievement because of student motivation. • Suchman, J.R., “Inquiry Training in the Elementary School”, THE SCIENCE TEACHER, Vol. 27, Nov. 1960. Marlins, James G., “A Study of the Effects of Using the Counterintuitive Event in Science Teaching on Subject-matter Achievement and Subject-matter Retention of Upper-elementary School Students”, Doctoral Thesis, The American University, 1973. • Liem, Tik L., “A Study of the Effects of Using Discrepant Events in Science Teaching on Concept Retention of Upper Elementary School Students”, Institute of Education, Halifax, 1980, pp. 287-293. • Liem, Tik L., Effects of Using Discrepant Events in Science Concept Retention of Junior High School Students”, Paper presented to the National Co-Educators Conference, Winnipeg, October 1980. • Best, J.W., RESEARCH I N EDUCATION, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1977.
Good Misconception Books • Invitations to Science Inquiry, Second Edition. Tik L. Liem. ISBN #1-878-106-007 • Magic and Showmanship for Teachersby Mr.Allen J.McCormack. • Bet You Can. Vickie Cobb. • Bet You Can’t. Vickie Cobb.
Internet Resources • Misconceptions Web Sites of Interest • Bad Science • PSU Website with some great information on it. • http://www.ems.psu.edu/~fraser/BadScience.html • Children’s Misconceptions About Science • Long lists containing science misconceptions. • http://www.amasci.com/miscon/opphys.html • Earth Science Misconceptions • Great list of ES misconceptions • http://k12s.phast.umass.edu/~nasa/misconceptions.html • Recurring Science Misconceptions in K-6 Textbooks • http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/miscon/miscon4.html • SamCATS Science Misconceptions • Research articles dealing with science misconceptions • http://www.shsu.edu/~sciteach/misc/misc.html • Science Misconceptions Research and Some Implications for Teaching of Science to Elementary School Children • Good article on dealing with science misconceptions in children. • http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed282776.html • Science Myths in K-6 Textbooks and Popular Culture • http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/miscon/miscon.html • Using the Science Misconceptions Research to Address Science Teaching Misconceptions • Excellent paper telling the problems experienced trying to change pre-service teachers model of teaching. • http://www.ed.psu.edu/CI/Journals/1998AETS/s2_7_weber.rtf
Your Journal Entry In what part or parts of the 5E model would you create cognitive dissonance to battle a misconception? Explain why you chose this part of the 5E model.