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Cholesterol. Fact and Fiction. 1. Cholesterol levels correlate with risk of heart attacks.

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  1. Cholesterol Fact and Fiction

  2. 1. Cholesterol levels correlate with risk of heart attacks • True: Data from multiple studies show a relationship between increasing levels of total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) and increasing risk of cardiovascular events. There is a negative correlation between high density lipoproteins (HDL) and cardiovascular events.

  3. Lipid Association with CHD Total Cholesterol (+)  VLDL-C + LDL-C + HDL-C (+) (+) (-) Association with CHD: Positive (+) or Negative (-)

  4. Lipid Association with CHD Total Cholesterol=VLDLC+LDLC+HDLC LDLC=TC-HDLC-VLDLC LDLC=TC-HDLC-(TG/5) Friedewald equation assumes VLDL cholesterol content is constant over a wide range of TG values (TG<400 mg/dl). This is not the case!

  5. 25 20 Post-CABG-M 4S-C 5-yr CVevents (%) 4S-T 15 Post-CABG-A CARE-T 10 CARE-C 5 155 174 193 212 232 251 271 Post-treatment TC (mg/dL) Risk of CHD Events and Level of Cholesterol C=control; T=treatment; A=aggressive; M=moderate. Yusuf S, Anand S. Circulation. 1996;93:1774-1776.

  6. Relation Between CHD Events and LDL-C in Recent Statin Trials 4S-PI 30 2° Prevention 25 4S-Rx 20 % with LIPID-Rx 15 LIPID-PI 1° Prevention CHD event CARE-Rx CARE-PI WOSCOPS-PI 10 AFCAPS/TexCAPS-PI 5 WOSCOPS-Rx AFCAPS/TexCAPS-Rx 0 90 110 130 150 170 190 210 Mean LDL-C level at follow-up (mg/dL) PI=placebo; Rx=treatment Shepherd J et al. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1301-1307. 4S Study Group. Lancet. 1995;345:1274-1275. Sacks FM et al. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1001-1009. Downs JR et al. JAMA. 1998;279:1615-1622. Tonkin A. Presented at AHA Scientific Sessions, 1997.

  7. Evidence for the Causal Relationship Between Blood Cholesterol and CAD • Plaque Chemistry • Animal Models • Metabolic Pathways • Genetic Syndromes • Epidemiology Studies • Clinical Intervention Trials

  8. 2. You need to consume cholesterol because it is an essential component to proper bodily functioning • False: Cholesterol is needed by the body for important cellular functions such as proper cell membrane composition and function, steroid and vitamin D production and other vital roles. However, people get cholesterol in two ways. The body — mainly the liver — produces varying amounts, usually about 1,000 milligrams a day. Foods also can contain cholesterol. Typically the body makes all the cholesterol it needs, so people don't need to consume it. Saturated fatty acids are the main culprit in raising blood cholesterol

  9. Cholesterol

  10. 3. The cholesterol in your blood causes blockages • False: Cholesterol and other fats can't dissolve in the blood. They have to be transported to and from the cells by special carriers called lipoproteins. These are molecules that our bodies manufacture (again with genetic predispositions) that consist of different pieces of proteins and fats. Cholesterol is a component of these molecules.

  11. 3. The cholesterol in your blood causes blockages These molecules, as a result of both size and number, can get into the walls of the arteries. Here they can become "oxidized"; a process by which they undergo a chemical transformation. These oxidized particles cause inflammatory changes, which over time can lead to plaque being built up and the arteries both narrowing due to plaque encroachment or the plaque can rupture and cause a clot to form in the artery obstructing blood flow.

  12. Apolipoprotein Apolipoprotein POLAR SURFACE COAT Phospholipid Free cholesterol Apolipoprotein Lipoprotein Structure NONPOLAR LIPID CORE Cholesterol Ester Triglyceride

  13. Understanding “Lipids” and Atherosclerosis Atherogenicity is determined by lipoproteins • Quantitatively (Concentration) • Qualitatively (Size)

  14. Fractionation (minutes) VLDL-C+ LDL-C+ HDL-C (+) (+) (-) Subfractionation (many hours) IDL + ++ + + + ++ + +- - - + + Total Cholesterol (+) Association with CHD: Positive (+) or Negative (-)

  15. At the same level of LDL cholesterol, people with small, dense LDL have about 25% more particles than those with large LDL

  16. 4. Cholesterol within the lining of the blood vessels causes inflammation • True: Cholesterol and other fats can't dissolve in the blood. They have to be transported to and from the cells by special carriers called lipoproteins. These are molecules that our bodies manufacture (again with genetic predispositions) that consist of different pieces of proteins and fats. Cholesterol is a component of these molecules.

  17. Circulating monocytes Vessel Lumen Native LDL Endothelial cells Endothelial dysfunction Endothelial Injury Resident monocyte / macrophage (-) (+) Subendothelial space Cell-mediated oxidation Foam cell Oxidized LDL Foam cell necrosis Smooth muscle Adapted from Gotto/ Lipid Disorders/ Evolution of Lesions/ pg 75

  18. 5. The only way to get rid of cholesterol is through intestinal excretion • True: Cholesterol is not metabolized; it is excreted in the intestines. The amount of LDL (bad) cholesterol in the blood is controlled in two important places — the liver and the intestines. The liver produces cholesterol (using it to make digestive — or bile — acids) and also removes cholesterol from the lipoproteins circulating in the blood. The intestines absorb cholesterol from food. The intestines also reabsorb about 50% of excreted cholesterol from bile.

  19. Excreted Liver Cholesterol Pathways Reabsorbed Intestinal Tract Cholesterol containing bile acids Adsorbed from food Adapted from Guerin, MG, et al. Athero, Throm, and Vasc Biol 1996;16(6):763-772

  20. 6. Cholesterol levels are determined by what is consumed • False: Diet and physical activity contribute to overall blood cholesterol levels as well as the cholesterol that is made naturally by the body.  However, there are wide genetic variations in both the amount of cholesterol produced as well as the types of lipoproteins produced. The body compensates for cholesterol intake by reducing the amount synthesized. Limiting food high in saturated fat and trans fat may help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol. The Food and Drug Administration now requires foods to be labeled for trans fats. Trans fats are found in variable amounts in most foods made with partially hydrogenated oils such as baked goods, cakes, cookies, crackers, pastries, pies, muffins, doughnuts, fried foods, shortening and some margarines and dairy products.

  21. 7. Cholesterol level is the best measure of cardiovascular risk • False: Cholesterol is used because it can be measured easily and cheaply, lipoprotein measurements are much more expensive and time consuming.

  22. Understanding “Lipids” and Atherosclerosis “Lipids” are onlysurrogate markers for lipoproteins • “… allabnormalities in plasma lipidconcentrations, or dyslipidemia, can be translated into dyslipoproteinemia.” • “… the shift of emphasis to lipoproteins offers distinctadvantages in the recognition and management of such disorders.” Fredrickson et al., NEJM 1967; 276: 148

  23. 8. Cholesterol can be reduced by diet and exercise • True: Cholesterol can be reduced with diet. In many studies the amount achievable by diet was 10-15%, which often does not reach the targeted levels. We have seen many patients who can get their levels to guideline recommendations through diet alone, but they often had a very poor diet to start. Likewise, many people who do not have a terrible diet to start cannot reach target levels without medication due to genetic predisposition. Exercise, as mentioned, is an excellent way to increase HDL. Niacin is used to help with low HDL and heart disease, and is of course a naturally occurring vitamin.

  24. 9. Diabetics with no history of heart disease and normal cholesterol levels are at the same risk for cardiovascular events as the general public • False: Diabetics (type II) with no history of myocardial infarction have approximately the same risk (~20%) of having a myocardial infarction as those who have already had a myocardial infarction ( 17.5%).

  25. Incidence of MI in Type II DM 1373 non-DM and 1059 Type II DM followed for 7 years 45 17.5 20 2.5 Haffner et al. NEJM 1998;339:229

  26. 10. Consumption of unprocessed red meat increases your risk of heart attack • False: A recent meta-analysis from the Harvard School of Public Health published in Circulation (May 2010) suggests that the cardiovascular risk associated with red meats comes primarily from the highly processed and chemically treated varieties such as bacon, sausage, hot dogs and other processed lunch and deli meats. The non-processed meats examined were beef, lamb and pork (not poultry

  27. 10. Consumption of unprocessed red meat increases your risk of heart attack While both contain fat, cholesterol and saturated fat, the processed choices are much higher in salt, preservatives and additives. The analysis combined data from 20 different studies involving more than 1.2 million people worldwide.  The findings revealed that daily consumption of about two ounces of processed meat was associated with a 42% increased risk of heart disease and a 19% increased risk of diabetes. Conversely, a four-ounce daily serving of red meat from beef, hamburger, pork, lamb or game did not increase the risk of heart disease, nor did it significantly increase the risk of diabetes. The rates of smoking, exercise and other risk factors were similar between the two groups.

  28. Cholesterol By Ed Miller, The Lowlander

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