anatomy and physiology n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Anatomy and Physiology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Anatomy and Physiology

play fullscreen
1 / 22

Anatomy and Physiology

85 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Anatomy and Physiology

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Anatomy and Physiology

  2. Anatomy is defined as : • The study of the structure and shape of the organs and systems of the Human Body and their Structural relationships to one another

  3. Physiology is defined as • The functions of the parts of the human body and the interaction of anatomic systems forming the human body as a whole

  4. Characteristics of life • Structure • Biochemical reactions • Responsiveness- to maintain Homeostasis • Reproduction • Growth-to gain mass • Development-different abilities (diffferentiation)

  5. Characteristics of life • Adaptation and evolution

  6. Goal of almost all body systems is to maintain life • Survival needs include • Water • Food • Oxygen • Heat • Atmospheric Pressure

  7. Homeostasis • The body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is constantly changing • Every organ system plays a role in maintaining stability

  8. Homeostasis • Homeostatic Regulation:physiological adjustments • Receptor –sensitive to stimulus • Effector-activity has an effect on the stimulus • Negative feedback effector that is activated by the control center opposes the stimulus • Positive Feedback-response reinforces the stimulus

  9. Level of Organization • Molecular • Cell • Tissue • Organ • Organ system • Organism • Each level is dependent of the others

  10. Organ systems • Integumentary : skin • Skeletal • Muscular • Nervous • Endocrine • Cardiovascular • Lymphatic: defense against infection/disease • Respiratory • Digestive

  11. Organ systems • Urinary • Reproductive

  12. Anatomical Directions • Costal-ribs • coxal-hip • Crural-leg • Cubital- elbow • Digital- finger • Dorsal-back • Femoral- thigh • Frontal- forehead • Genital reproductive organs

  13. Anatomical Directions • Inguinal-depressed area of the abdomen near the thigh • Dorsal Cavity-back of the body • Cranial cavity-brain • Vertebral cavity-spinal cord, spine • Ventral cavity-front or stomach • Thoracic cavity- • Pleural-lungs

  14. Ventral Cavity • Thoracic con’t- • Mediastinal- esophagus/trachia/major blood vessels • Periocardial-heart • Abdominopelvic • Abdominal cavity-digestive organs • Pelvic- reproductive/urinary

  15. Body cavities

  16. Thoracic Membranes • Pleural Membrane • Parietal Pleural Membrane-line inside of the pleural cavity • Visceral Pleural Membrare-adheres to the surface of lungs • Periocardial Membrane • Parietal Periocardial Membrane- line inside of periocardial cavity • Visceral Periocardial Membrane- adheres to the surface of the heart

  17. Abdominal Membrane • Peritoneal Membrane • Parietal peritoneal Membrane/Parietal peritoneum-lines inside of abdominal cavity • Visceral Peritoneum-adheres to the surface of the stomach

  18. Directional Terms • Superior (cranial or cephalic) • Inferior –caudal • Anterior- ventral • Posterior- Dorsal • Medial- midline • Lateral- away from the longitudinal axis • Proximal-toward an attached base, toward the trunk • Distal- away from an attached base, away from the trunk

  19. Body planes

  20. Standard Anatomical Position

  21. Abdominal quadrants