Earthquake Earthquake are tremors of the Earth’s surface caused by a sudden release of energy stored in the rocks of the Earth’s crust.
Collapse of infrastructure • The collapse of infrastructure such as buildings , flyovers and bridges. • This especially take place where infrastructure is not designed to withstand earthquakes. • E.g.. In turkey about 4000 buildings were destroyed during an earthquake in 1999 because the building were unwithstandable to earthquakes. Fires • It’s not directly caused by earthquake ,as they may be caused by damaged wire, overturned stoves or broken gas pipes when the ground shakes. • Cause deaths and the collapse of infrastructure. • It may leave many people injured and homeless.
Landslide • When the ground shakes during an earthquake, the soil on hill slopes loosens. • Happens in hilly or mountainous area. • Landslide is the sliding down of large amounts of rocks or soil from a mountain or hill slope • People , infrastructure , and roads may be buried under the rocks and soil. Tsunamis • Tsunamis are series of huge waves produced as a result of undersea earthquakes. • These huge waves travel led for a thousands of kilometers before crashing upon the shores and destroy many settlements along the coast.
Loss of lives • During an earthquake, the losses of lives may result directly from fires, landslides, tsunamis or the collapse of infrastructure. • Victims who suffered severe injuries may eventually die if they did not receive emergency relief in time as a result many people died of starvation and exposure to the cold. Negative economic impacts • The destruction of the infrastructure also gives rise to significant economic losses for the affected countries • Infrastructure like buildings , roads, water pipes and electrical supplies causes great inconvenience to business located in the area this severely affect the economy.
Spread of diseases • After an earthquakes many people are left homeless so they put up a temporary shelters like schools and tents. • These shelter are usually lack proper sanitation and overcrowded so this often result in the rapid spread of diseases like cholera and typhoid Disruption of jobs • Jobs may be affected as a result of an earthquakes, this is especially true for fishermen or famers whose jobs are dependent on the physical environment(sea). • Tsunamis destroyed mangroves and coral reefs which were habitats and breeding ground of fish, prawn and other marine life and this reduce the amount of fish the local fishermen could catch. • Tourist destination may be affected. tourist my have avoided visiting these area for fear of another possible earthquake or tsunami and people working in the tourism industry might lose their jobs.
Magnitude of earthquake • The amount of damage caused by an earthquake may depend on the strength of force it release. • The earthquake is measured using the richer scale which ranges from 0-9 magnitude. Type of soil • People living in areas with soft soil tend to be affected more greatly. • Soft soil tends to amplify the affects of an earthquake, making it more likely for infrastructure to collapse. Level of preparedness • People living in the earthquake-prone areas have used a variety of measures to prepare themselves in the event of an earthquakes.
Planning the location of infrastructure • Local authorities that give approval to the construction of new infrastructure in earthquake-prone areas could take into consideration the location of these structure and implement outline on where to be constructed. • In some places the control of land use is difficult because of the cities of developing countries where population is growing quickly. Designing new infrastructure • New infrastructural designs make use of the latest technology to help structures withstand the force of an earthquake. Ex. shock absorbers are used in the foundation to help absorb the tremors of earthquake. • It is expensive to construct such a structure , poor places in the world may not be able to afford such technology
Education • Drills are conducted regularly in many earthquake-prone countries to educate and familiarize people on what to do in the event of an earthquake. • Government of earthquake-prone countries also use posters and signs to warn people and educate people on what to do in the event of earthquake.
Earthquake monitoring and warning system • Seismometers and computers are used to measure movement of the earth’s surface. • Information produced by these instruments are evaluated to determine if an earthquake is likely to occur. • The effectiveness of an earthquake warning and monitoring system is limited as authorities may choose to ignore the warning system to avoid disruption to business and tourism.
Thank you BY: Hein Akar , Hussen and Salahuddin