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The Common Fisheries Policy

The Common Fisheries Policy

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The Common Fisheries Policy

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  1. The Common Fisheries Policy Vilanova i la Geltrú, 16th of June 2010

  2. Index Introduction: some data related with European fisheries • Who are the main stakeholders? • General information of the fishery sector Main characteristics of the Common Fisheries Policy • Main characteristics • Some problems Towards a new Common Fisheries Policy • Political process • Some proposals

  3. Some European data on fisheries

  4. Source: Maratlas http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/atlas/maritime_atlas/

  5. Source: La politique commune de la pêche en chiffres. Edition 2010. Commission européenne

  6. Source: La politique commune de la pêche en chiffres. Edition 2010. Commission européenne

  7. Source: La politique commune de la pêche en chiffres. Edition 2008. Commission européenne

  8. Source: La politique commune de la pêche en chiffres. Edition 2010. Commission européenne

  9. 2005

  10. Where EU captures comes from? 72 % 10 % 6,7% 2,5% 1,7% 1,3% Source: La politique commune de la pêche en chiffres. Edition 2010. Commission européenne

  11. The Common Fisheries policy

  12. Short history Council Regulation (EEC) No 101/76 of 19 January 1976 laying down a common structural policy for the fishing industry Council Resolution of 25 January 1983 on measures to adjust capacity and to improve productivity in the fisheries sector Council Regulation (EEC) No 3760/92 of 20 December 1992 establishing a Community system for fisheries and aquaculture Council Regulation (EEC) No 2371/2002 of December 2002 on the conservation and sustainable exploitation of the fisheries resources under the Common Fisheries Policy

  13. Objectives • The objective of the Common Fisheries Policy should therefore be to provide for sustainable exploitation of living aquatic resources and of aquaculture in the context of sustainable development, taking account of the environmental, economic and social aspects in a balanced manner. (article 4 preamble, 2002 CFP version) • The Common Fisheries Policy shall ensure exploitation of living aquatic resources that provides sustainable economic, environmental and social conditions. (article 2, 2002 CFP version) What has balanced manner mean in practice? Are all the objectives possible at the same time?

  14. Balanced manner? • 88% of Community stocks are being fished beyond Maximum Sustainable Yield (maximum catch which on average can be taken year after year from a fish stock without deteriorating the productivity of fish stock). Fishing above MSY in the short term will lead to lower catch opportunities in the long term as the fish stock is fished down. • 33% of these stocks are outside safe biological limits, which means that they may not be able to replenish. • Source: European Commission Green Paper reform on the Common Fisheries policy. 2009.

  15. Main areas of CFP in practice Definition of fishing rules Monitoring the size of the European fishing fleet Funding and technical support Providing national authorities with the tools to enforce the rules Negotiating on behalf of EU countries in international fisheries organisations and with non-EU countries around the world Market Supporting the development of aquaculture Funding scientific research and data collection

  16. Main areas of CFP in practice Definition of fishing rules Monitoring the size of the European fishing fleet Funding and technical support Providing national authorities with the tools to enforce the rules Negotiating on behalf of EU countries in international fisheries organisations and with non-EU countries around the world Market Supporting the development of aquaculture Funding scientific research and data collection

  17. Fishing rules

  18. Fishing rules • There are three types of fishing rules. • Fishing effort limitations- restrict the size of the fleet that sets to sea and the amount of time it can spend fishing. IMPUT APPROACH. • Catch limits- restrict the quantity of fish that can be taken from the sea before fishers need to stop fishing. This is done by TACs and quotas. OUTPUT APPROACH • Technical measures- regulate how and where fishers can fish. They can, for example, be used to protect young fish, encourage the use of more selective fishing gear or prevent serious damage to the marine environment.

  19. Problems with fishing effort regulation • On average fleets have been reduced by only 2% a year. Which has been offset by technological progress in fishing efficiency (2-3% a year). • Fishing capacity concept (GT/days or KW/days) is misleading and it does not consider real environmental impact of the different fleet segments and gears, different fuel requirements, different quality of fish and different social outcomes. • Externalisation of fleet overcapacity.

  20. Fishing rules • There are three types of fishing rules. • Fishing effort limitations- restrict the size of the fleet that sets to sea and the amount of time it can spend fishing. IMPUT APPROACH. • Catch limits- restrict the quantity of fish that can be taken from the sea before fishers need to stop fishing. This is done by TACs and quotas. OUTPUT APPROACH • Technical measures- regulate how and where fishers can fish. They can, for example, be used to protect young fish, encourage the use of more selective fishing gear or prevent serious damage to the marine environment.

  21. Catch limits (I) • Total allowable catches (TACs) are catch limits that are set for most significant commercial fish stocks. • Scientific advise Proposal by the Commission Decision by the Council of Fisheries Ministers. • TACs are set annually for most stocks (on December) and every two years for deep sea species. For an increasing number of stocks, TACs are set in line with multi-annual plans.

  22. Source: la politique commune de la pêche en chiffres. Edition 2010. Commission européenne

  23. Catch limits (II) • Use of 'maximum sustainable yield ' (MSY) concept as a management goal. Use in multi-annual plans for particular fish stocks or fisheries. • The TACs are shared between EU countries under a system known as 'relative stability' which keeps national quotas stable in relation to each other, even when the total quantity of fish that can be caught varies with the productivity of the fish stocks.

  24. Problems with Catch limits (III) TACs agreed each year (by Council) are many times much higher than those recommended by the European Commission. A=Commission-proposed TAC B=Council-adopted TAC Source: WWF Mid-Term Review of the EU Common Fisheries Policy. 2007 2006 TACs 2007 TACs

  25. Problems with Catch limits (IV) … even if the European Commission also sometimes does over-quote what scientific advise suggest…. Source: WWF Mid-Term Review of the EU Common Fisheries Policy. 2007.

  26. Problems with Catch limits (V) … even worse sometimes there is an over-fishing of TACs …. • How much?....who knows?1,8% official statistics in 2004, but the Commission acknowledged that these official data “might not reflect the situation correctly in all cases” and that it is “likely that some quota overruns may be worse than what they appear or are ignored”.

  27. Problems with Catch limits (VI) • Relative stability is not working properly. • There is a considerable discrepancy between the quotas allocated to Member States and the actual needs and uses of their fleets, it has created unexpected effects as out-flagging by fishing operators, it contributes to discards (due to national limits), it is not flexible. • The management system does not differentiate between small-scale fleets and industrial fleets. • It does not encourage best environmental and social practices.

  28. Fishing rules • There are three types of fishing rules. • Fishing effort limitations- restrict the size of the fleet that sets to sea and the amount of time it can spend fishing. IMPUT APPROACH. • Catch limits- restrict the quantity of fish that can be taken from the sea before fishers need to stop fishing. This is done by TACs and quotas. OUTPUT APPROACH • Technical measures- regulate how and where fishers can fish. They can, for example, be used to protect young fish, encourage the use of more selective fishing gear or prevent serious damage to the marine environment.

  29. Technical measures • Technical measures include: • minimum landing sizes • minimum mesh sizes for nets • closed areas and seasons • limits on by-catches (catches of unwanted or non-target species) • requirement to use more selective fishing gear  (to reduce unwanted by-catch) • measures to prevent damage to the marine environment. • Technical measures differ considerably from one sea basin to another, according to local conditions

  30. Problem with fishing rules • What is the proper scale of decision-making?. • From micromanagement to self-management?

  31. Size of fleets

  32. Size of fleets • Since January 2003, Member States have had to respect a entry-exit regime for the capacity of their fleet, measured in terms of both tonnage and ower. The idea is to ensure that the capacity of national fleets can never be any greater than it was on that date • Community Fleet Register (CFR) was established. It is the main tool for monitoring the size of the EU fishing fleet.

  33. Problems with size of fleets • Quality of current data. Are the registered boats really fishing? • Whereisgoingthe EU overcapacity? • Howthe “qualities” of sizefleets are considered?

  34. Funding

  35. Funding • The European fisheries fund (EFF) is the main financial mechanism associated to CFP. Budget of €4.3 billion for 2007-2013. • Previously (2000-2006) the financial mechanism was the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG). EU allocations for FIFG were €3.2 billion

  36. Funding • The EFF has five axes: • Adjustment of the fleet (e.g. to support scrapping of fishing vessels) • Aquaculture, processing and marketing, and inland fishing (e.g. to support the shift to more environmentally friendly production methods) • Measures of common interest (e.g. to improve product traceability or labelling) • Sustainable development of fisheries areas (e.g. to support diversification of the local economy) • Technical assistance to finance the administration of the fund.

  37. Funding

  38. Fisheries control

  39. Control regulation • Current system is laid down in the Control Regulation which entered into force on 1 January 2010 and which thoroughly modernised the EU's approach to fisheries control.

  40. Problems with control regulation • In 2007 the EU Court of Auditors heavily criticized the fisheries control in the European Union • Fisheries control has generally been weak, penalties are not dissuasive and inspections not frequent enough • No link between funding and the development of control systems at the national level • Data supported by national governments to control fisheries has been many times partially or directly wrong

  41. International action

  42. International action • More than a quarter of the fish caught by European fishing boats are actually taken outside EU waters. Around 8 % of EU catches (2004-06) are made under fishing agreements with countries outside the EU, while another 20 % are taken on the high seas, mainly in regions under the care of regional fisheries management organisations. • As a major fishing power, and the largest single market for fisheries products in the world, the EU does have an important role in a number of international organisations. This involves developing and implementing policy on fisheries management and – more generally – the Law of the Sea.

  43. Problems with international action • In the past EU fleet has contributed to overfishing on some areas (example West Africa) • Part of the fleet has been “re-flaged” and avoid EU standards • The fishing agreements have been paid with public money not by EU vessel ownersing, why? • In the past fishing agreement have not contributed to development. • Need to improve governance and transparency

  44. Conclusion World fisheries biggest impact on marine environment and often unsustainably managed

  45. Towards a new Common Fisheries Policy

  46. Towards a new CFP • Green paper on the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy (June 2010) • Consultation on the Green paper (31 December 2010) • Impact assessment of the proposals (autumn 2010) • Meetings • First draft: first semester 2011 • New CFP: end 2012

  47. OCEAN2012

  48. Key demands OCEAN 2012 • Prioritisation of environmental objectives • Decision-making framework differentiating between strategic and operational management decisions • Quantitative and qualitative capacity limits • Access to fisheries based on environmental and social criteria, as well as compliance • Phase out public aid that sustains overcapacity

  49. Stock management • No fishing without fish; no fish without ecosystems • Precautionary principle & ecosystem-based approach • Follow scientific advice – legally binding? • Make MSY interim; better target needed • LTMPs for all major stocks • Minimise impact of fishing activities

  50. Future decision-making • Setting overall, long-term policy objectives • Determining the available fish resources • Determining the amount and type of fishing power needed • Allocating access to the resource • Local/regionalised implementation