Direct Instruction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

direct instruction n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Direct Instruction PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Direct Instruction

play fullscreen
1 / 47
Direct Instruction
308 Views
Download Presentation
tanek
Download Presentation

Direct Instruction

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Direct Instruction Michael J. Fimian

  2. Direct Instruction Overview • What Is It? • Why Use It? • A Brief History • Exemplars, Direct Instructional Model • Attributes • Calendar Skills • Conclusion, Items, and References

  3. Direct Instruction: What Is It? Instruction

  4. Direct Instruction: What Is It? Instruction Direct

  5. Direct Instruction: What Is It? Instruction Direct Indirect

  6. Background

  7. Background

  8. A Brief History... • It all started In the ‘60s… • S.Engelmann -- preschool with his kids • C.Bereiter in the Midwest • Both moved to UFO in late ‘60s • Secured Federal Funding for large scale projects, later with W.Becker • Researched in 1970s and 1980s • reading -- SRA

  9. Exemplars of Direct Instruction • There’s DI and there’s “DI” • First, second, third generation trainers • CA, TA, teach anything • DISTAR • Direct Instructional System for Teaching Arithmetic and Reading (+ Language)

  10. Direct Instruction Model AO Phases I

  11. Direct Instruction Model AO Presentation Phases I II

  12. Direct Instruction Model AO Generalization Presentation Phases I II III

  13. Direct Instruction Model AO Generalization Presentation Probe Phases I IV II III

  14. Direct Instruction Model AO Generalization Lead-in Presentation Probe Phases I IV V II III

  15. Direct Instruction Model • Review of previously-learned material • State the objectives • Present new material • Guide practice • Independently practice • Periodic review with “connective feedback”

  16. Direct Instruction: What Is It Not? Direct Instruction + Attributes - Attributes

  17. Attributes of DI -- Common Term • Direct Instruction • Tutorial • Indirect Instruction • Experiential

  18. Attributes of DI -- Philosophy • Direct Instruction • Instructivist by nature • Indirect Instruction • Constructivist by Nature

  19. Attributes of DI -- Messaging • Direct Instruction • Direct Messaging • Indirect Instruction • Indirect Messaging

  20. Attributes of DI -- Learner Role • Direct Instruction • Learner is passive receptor • Indirect Instruction • Learner is active receptor

  21. Attributes of DI -- “Directedness” • Direct Instruction • Instruction is Direct • Indirect Instruction • Instruction is Indirect

  22. Attributes of DI -- Environment • Direct Instruction • Instructional environment -- minimized • Indirect Instruction • Instructional environment -- vital

  23. Attributes of DI -- Environment • Direct Instruction • Instructional environment -- not acted upon • Indirect Instruction • Instructional environment -- acted upon

  24. Attributes of DI -- Environment • Direct Instruction • Instructional environment -- not important • Indirect Instruction • Instructional environment -- important

  25. Attributes of DI -- Content • Direct Instruction • “Focussed” content • Indirect Instruction • “Unfocussed” content

  26. Attributes of DI -- Student Given... • Direct Instruction • all of the pieces • Indirect Instruction • some of the pieces

  27. Attributes of DI -- Structure • Direct Instruction • instruction “structures” the pieces • Indirect Instruction • learner “structures” the pieces

  28. Elements of Instruction

  29. Attributes of DI -- Reasoning Types • Direct Instruction • allows for both inductive (top down) and deductive (bottom up) training • Indirect Instruction • allows for problem solving

  30. Attributes of DI -- “Understanding” • Direct Instruction • understanding is based on someone else’s structure • Indirect Instruction • learners must generate own “structure of understanding”

  31. Attributes of DI -- “Schema” • Direct Instruction • final “schema” is preset • Indirect Instruction • final “schema” is developed by learner

  32. Attributes of DI -- Samples... • Direct Instruction • Examples are appropriate; more the better... • Indirect Instruction • Simulations are appropriate; environments in which learner must solve problems

  33. Attributes of DI -- Type of Probes • Direct Instruction • Assessed by simple questions; closed-ended • Indirect Instruction • Assessed by sets of problems to be solved

  34. Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Attribute Instruction -- Range in a Continuum

  35. Sample DI: Calendar Skills

  36. Who Benefits from DI? • Does • Kids who are slower… • Kids who need structure -- at first • Kids who are being taught: • procedures • facts • concepts -- concrete to abstract • Instructional Software Developers

  37. Conclusion • DI is a tool... • Know when to use it; when not to… • Know the conditions under which it is best used… • Don’t use it all the time, or never • Don’t use it for all kids, or none

  38. Conclusion

  39. Conclusion

  40. Conclusion

  41. Conclusion

  42. Questions for Direct Instruction • What are some of the attributes of Direct Instruction (DI)? • Why can DI be thought of as being on a continuum, from DI to II. • Is DI for all kids? Why or why not? • For what type of instruction / kids is DI best suited?

  43. References • Baumann, J. F. (1988). Direct instruction reconsidered. Journal of Reading, 31(8), 712-718. • Becker, W. C., & Carnine, D. (1980). Direct instruction: An effective approach to educational intervention with the disadvantaged and low performers. In B. B. Lahey, & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (pp. 429-473). New York, NY: Plenum Press. • Darch, C. B. (1990). Research on direct instruction. In D. Carnine, J. Silbert, & E. J. Kameenui (Eds.), Direct instruction reading (pp. 23-33). Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Company.

  44. References • Engelmann, S., Becker, W. C., Carnine, D., & Gersten, R. (1988). The direct instruction follow through model: Design and outcomes. Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 303-317. • Gersten, R. (1985). Direct instruction with special education students: A review of evaluation research. Journal of Special Education, 19(1), 41-58. • Gersten, R., & Carnine, D. (1986). Direct instruction in reading comprehension. Educational Leadership, 43(7), 70-78. • Gersten, R., Carnine, D., & Woodward, J. (1987). Direct instruction research: The third decade. Remedial and Special Education, 8(6), 48-56.

  45. References • Gersten, R., & Keating, T. (1987). Long-term benefits from direct instruction. Educational Leadership, 44(6), 28-31. • Gersten, R., Keating, T., & Becker, W. (1988). The continued impact of the direct instruction model: Longitudinal studies of follow through students. Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 318-327. • Gersten, R., Woodward, J., & Darch, C. (1986). Direct instruction: A research-based approach to curriculum design and teaching. Exceptional Children, 53(1), 17-31. • Graves, A. W. (1986). Effects of direct instruction and metacomprehension training on finding main ideas. Learning Disabilities Research, 1(2), 90-100.

  46. References • Kaiser, S., Palumbo, K., Bialozor, R. C., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1989). The effects of direct instruction with rural remedial education students: A brief report. Reading Improvement, 26(1), 88-93. • Kierstead, J. (1985). Direct instruction and experiential approaches: Are they really mutually exclusive? Educational Leadership, 42(8), 25-30. • Mathes, P. G., & Proctor, T. J. (1988). Direct instruction for teaching "hard to teach" students. Reading Improvement, 25(2), 92-97. • Proctor, T. J. (1989). Attitudes toward direct instruction. Teacher Education and Special Education, 12(1-2), 40-45.

  47. References • White, W. A. T. (1988). A meta-analysis of the effects of direct instruction in special education. Education and Treatment of Children, 11(4), 364-374.