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Hypothalamus. Haley mahlum and adele verrengia January 12,2013 6 th period. Location. The hypothalamus is located within the brain, below the thalamus. Hormones and their effects. What hormones does it produce and what do they do? ~Dopamine- a neurotransmitter

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  1. Hypothalamus Haley mahlum and adeleverrengia January 12,2013 6th period

  2. Location • The hypothalamus is located within the brain, below the thalamus.

  3. Hormones and their effects • What hormones does it produce and what do they do? • ~Dopamine- a neurotransmitter • ~Somatosatin-regulates the endocrine system • ~THR-regulates metabolism and heart rate • ~GnRH-stimulates pituitary gland • ~GHRH-growth hormone • ~CRH-involved in the stress response

  4. What is the importance of these hormones? • So many major subdivisions of the neuraxis communicate with the Hypothalamus. Therefore it has a huge influence. • The function of the hypothalamus is necessary in homeostasis to help aid survival and reproduction.

  5. Feedback mechanisms & antagonist hormones • Many of the endocrine glands are linked to neural control centers by homeostatic feedback mechanisms. There are two types of feedback mechanisms: negative and positive. Negative feedback decreases the deviation from an ideal normal value, and is important in maintaining homeostasis. Think of your AC in your house when it gets to hot your AC knows to kick on and adjust it to the correct setting. The negative feedback mechanisms work in the same way. • Negative feedback opposes the release of hormones. • Antagonistic hormones oppose each other’s actions.

  6. Releasing hormones and glands • Any of several hormones produced in the hypothalamus and carried by a vein to the anterior pituitary gland where they stimulate the release of anterior pituitary hormones; each of these hormones causes the anterior pituitary to secrete a specific hormone.

  7. What happens in it does not function properly? • The hypothalamus controls body temperature, so if it were damaged or didn't work right, your body wouldn't control how hot or cold you were. • Dysfunction of the hypothalamus often leads to depression, hyperactivity, abnormal responses to stress, or disturbances in brain and limbic functioning. • Some of the physical aspects of Hypothalamic dysfunction are: • Disordered sleep, Multiple hormonal dysfunctions, Immune dysfunction, Autonomic dysfunction, Altered body temperatures. • The general functions of the hypothalamus are of extreme importance for the body, such as: • pituitary gland regulation • blood pressure regulation • feeding reflexes • hydration  • water preservation • testicular function • metabolism • thirst • heart rate • hormonal/neurotransmitter regulation • mood & behavioral functions • sleep cycles • hunger and salt cravings • body temperature regulation  • bladder function  • ovarian function • wakefulness • energy levels

  8. Medical attention if you have these symptoms • Hypothyroidism symptoms: • Cold intolerance • Constipation • Depressed mood • Fatigue • Hair or skin changes • Hoarseness • Impotence • Loss of body hair and muscle (in men) • Mental slowing • Menstrual cycle changes: • Weight gain • Low adrenal function symptoms • Dizziness • Weakness • Tumor symptoms: • Headaches • Loss of vision • Other, less common symptoms may include: • Body temperature problems • Emotional problems • Excess thirst • Obesity • Uncontrolled urination • Kallmann's syndrome (a type of hypothalamic dysfunction that occurs in men) symptoms • Lowered function of sexual hormones (hypogonadism) • Inability to smell

  9. TREATMENT • Treatment depends on the cause of the hypothalamic dysfunction. • Tumors -- surgery or radiation • Hormonal deficiencies -- replace missing hormones • Specific treatments may be available for bleeding, infection, and other causes.

  10. sources • http://www.yourhormones.info/glands/hypothalamus.aspx • http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s4/chapter01.html • http://www.pennmedicine.org/health_info/body_guide/reftext/html/endo_sys_fin.html • http://www.thefreedictionary.com/hypothalamic+releasing+hormone • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001202.htm Definitely deserve a 100! Thanks for watching!

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