slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds.. Taeke M. de Jong Drs. M.J. Moens C.M. Steenbergen PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation Taeke M. de Jong Drs. M.J. Moens C.M. Steenbergen

play fullscreen
1 / 76 Taeke M. de Jong Drs. M.J. Moens C.M. Steenbergen

216 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation Taeke M. de Jong Drs. M.J. Moens C.M. Steenbergen

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Sun wind water earth life living legends for design(AR1U010 Territory (design),AR0112 Civil engineering (calculations)) Taeke M. de Jong Drs. M.J. Moens C.M. Steenbergen

  2. Publish on your website: AR1U010 how you could take water, networks, traffic and civil works into account in your • earlier, • actual and • future work. AR0112 calculation and observations of streams in any location and your design, check your observations  As soon as you are ready with all subjects (Sun, Wind, Water, Earth, Life, Living, Traffic, Legends), send a referring your web adress, student number and code AR1U010 or AR0112.


  4. Total amount of water on Earth

  5. Yearly gobal evaporation, precipitation and runoff

  6. Global distribution of precipitation

  7. European distribution of precipitation

  8. Precipitation minus evaporation in The Netherlands

  9. European river system

  10. Soil types and average annual runoff

  11. Simulating runoff

  12. Distinguishing orders

  13. Theoretical orders of urban traffic infrastructure

  14. Orders of dry and wet connections in a lattice

  15. Opening up feather and tree like

  16. Wat’s efficient?

  17. Forms of deposit

  18. Meandering and twining

  19. Twining at R=100km, meandering at R=30km

  20. Deltas

  21. Q by measurement The velocity v of water can be measured on different vertical lines h with mutual distance b in a cross section of a river. You can multiply v x b x h and summon the outcomes in cross section A to get Q = S(v*b*h).

  22. Data from profile witdh b height h velocity v

  23. Drainage subdivision

  24. Q on different water heights

  25. Q(height) Normal representation Logarithmic representation

  26. Hydrolic radius Cross length (Natte omtrek) by Pythagoras: H P A Surface wet cross section: Hydrolic radius:

  27. Method Chézy The average velocity of water v = Q/A in m/sec is dependent on this hydrolic radius R, the roughness C it meets, and the slope of the river as drop of waterline s, in short v(C,R,s). According to Chézy v(C,R,s)=CRs m/sec, and Q = Av = ACRs m3/sec. Calculating C is the problem.

  28. Method Strickler-Manning Instead of v=CRs, Strickler-Manning used

  29. Method Stevens Instead of v=CRs Stevens used v=cR considering Chézy’s Cs as a constant c to be calculated from local measurements. So, Q = Av = cAR m3/sec When we measure H and Q several times (H1, H2 …Hk and Q1, Q2 … Qk), we can show different values of A(H)R(H) resulting from earlier calculation as a straight line in the graph below. Surface wet cross section: Hydrolic radius:

  30. Reading Q from H by Stevens When we read today on our inspection walk a new water level H1 on the sounding rod of the profile concerned we can interpolate H1 between earlier measurements of H and read horizontally an estimated Q1 between the earlier corresponding values of Q to read Q from graph.

  31. Hydrographs River with continuous base discharge River with periodical base discharge

  32. Using drainage data Duration line Dataset with peak discharges

  33. Peak discharges The peak discharge QT exceeded once in average T years (‘return period’) is called ‘T-years discharge’. The probability P of extreme values is called ‘extreme value distribution’. The complementary probability P = 1 ‑ P’ discharge Q will exceed an observation (Q>X) is 1/T and the reverse P’ = 1 – P = 1 – 1/T. So, the ‘reduced variable’ y = -ln(-ln(1 – 1/T)). Now we put in a graph: and

  34. Constructing Gumble I paper T(y) and P(y) Logaritmically Gumbel I paper

  35. Gumble I paper

  36. Level and discharge regulators

  37. Regulation principles

  38. Retention in Rhine basin

  39. Reservoirs

  40. Storage When surface A varies with height h storage S is not proportional to height. By measuring surfaces on different heights A(h) you get an area-elevation curve. The storage on any height S(h) (capacity curve) is the sum of these layers or integral

  41. Capacity calculation You can simulate the working of a reservoir (‘operation study’) showing the cumulative sum of input minus output (inclusive evaporation and leakage). The graph is divided in intervals running from a peak to the next higher peak to start with the first peak. For every interval the difference between the first peak and its lowest level determines the required storage capacity of that interval. The highest value obtained this way is the required reservoir capacity.

  42. Cumulative Rippl diagram

  43. Avoiding floodings by reservoirs To estimate the risk a reservoir can not store runoff long enough you need to know probability distributions of daily discharge.

  44. Water management and hygiene

  45. Strategies

  46. Lowlands with spots of recognisable water management

  47. Water managemant tasks in lowlands 03 Water supply and purificatien 01 Water structuring 02 Saving water 04 Waste water management 07 Re-use of water 05 Urban hydrology 06 Sewerage 08 High tide management 11 Wetlands 09 Water management 10 Biological management 12 Water quality management 13 Bottom clearance 14 Law and organisation 15 Groundwater management 16 Natural purification

  48. Water management map

  49. Overlay of observation points

  50. Overlay of water supply