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Chapter 4 Aroma Characteristics & Aroma Analysis of Wine

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  1. Wine Tasting Chapter 4 Aroma Characteristics & Aroma Analysis of Wine By Prof. Yanlin Liu

  2. Reading assignment 李华,《葡萄酒品尝学》,科学出版社,2006. pp31-67 Emile Peynaud:The Taste of Wine—The Art and Science of Wine Appreciation. Michael Schuster translated. United States: The Wine Appreciation Guild (Publishers) LTD., 1987,pp45-64

  3. Chap. 4 Aroma Characteristics and Aroma Analysis of Wine • Research advance of wine aroma 葡萄酒的香气研究概要 • Characters of wine aroma 葡萄酒的香气特点 • Aroma substances of wine 葡萄酒的呈香物质 • Classification of wine aromas 葡萄酒的香气分类 • Tasting technique—Aroma analysis品尝技术---香气分析 • Tasting words- Aroma 品尝词汇---关于香气的描述

  4. Research advance of wine aroma葡萄酒香气研究概要 • Development of analysis instruments 分析仪器的发展 • Quali-quantitative analysis of odor 气味物质的定性定量分析 • Odor substances and quality of fragrance 呈香物质与香气质量 • Odor consistency and quality of fragrance 香气浓度与香气质量 • Interaction of Odor substances呈香物质的相互作用 • Electronic nose电子鼻

  5. GC-sniff

  6. GC-sniff

  7. GC-sniff

  8. Aroma Characteristics if Wine葡萄酒香气的特点 • Richness丰富性 • Variability变化性 • Complexity复杂性 • Materiality and immateriality有形与无形 • Mystery 神秘性 • neither stable nor persistent. Instability不稳定性 unnpersistent非持续性 • State of dissociation and combination游离态与结合态 • Apperceive and characterization香气的感知与描述

  9. Smell • 200-800 aromatics in wine • To smell anything, it must be in a gaseous state to reach our receptor cells, dissolved in the mucous lining粘液外膜 and stimulate nerve endings • difference in smelling an odor is between exposure from the air and exposure from a liquid (wine glass design)

  10. Smell • in order to smell, we must breathe in more than normal • 20% of all available odors reach receptors during normal breathing • only 2% actually gets through the nose to reach the ‘sensory patch’

  11. Smell • remember to maintain the same techniques always in regards to breathing in deeply for assessment • trying to avoid fatigue on the senses by spacing out intake of the odor

  12. Smell • humans have the ability to detect 10,000 different odors • this ability is linked by our health, our own individual response level, environmental factors • difference in perception can vary by a factor as much as 1 hundred thousand from person to person

  13. Olfactory signals • The sense of smell recognizes and classifies volatile products only if they are soluble in the olfactory mucosa粘膜and have a smell. • Odors are only detected in a gas state. • Olfactory sensations are neither stable nor persistent.

  14. ODOUR-BEARING SUBSTANCES • When you pour wine into a glass there is a balance in the distribution of volatile molecules between those in a liquid and those in a gas phase. • This balance depends on the substance‘s volatility coefficient系数, on the evaporative surface and its rate of renewal and also on temperature.

  15. ODOUR-BEARING SUBSTANCES • Alcohols • Aldehyde compounds醛类化合物 • Fatty acids • Esters • Organic acid • Phenolic substances (Polyphenols) and terpene萜烯类

  16. Alcohols • Alcohols with the largest molecules are the most aromatic of all. • Paradoxically, it is the lightest substances that are the least volatile.

  17. 呈香物质(气味物质) 气味物质即给我们以嗅觉刺激的物质。不同种类、不同浓度的气味物质以不同的比例组合起来,就构成了千变万化的气味。 目前已鉴定出葡萄酒中的呈香物质,其分别归属于醇类、酯类、有机酸、羰基化合物、酚类、萜烯类化合物。

  18. 呈香物质 (一)醇类 乙醇、丙醇、丁醇、异丁醇、戊醇、己醇、庚醇、辛醇、苯甲醇、月桂醇、 甘油

  19. 呈香物质--(二)酯类  葡萄酒中的酯类物质是酵母发酵的副产物。酯类的气味类似水果香气(如香蕉)、化学品(如指甲油)及酸味糖果等的气味。 乙酸异戊酯:强烈的水果香气,似香蕉味、梨的甜酸味; 辛酸乙酯:令人愉快的花果香气,杏子香气; 已酸乙酯:强烈的菠萝、香蕉的香气。

  20. 呈香物质- (三)有机酸  除少部分挥发性有机酸来源于葡萄浆果外,葡萄酒中大部分有机酸则主要是发酵的副产物,由脂肪酸引起的香气则较为稳定,其气味类似肥皂、蜡烛和硬脂精等,低碳酸(如甲酸、乙酸、丙酸、丁酸、戊酸、异戊酸等)往往尖酸、刺激、不愉快。

  21. 呈香物质- (四)羰基化合物 乙醛 丙醛 异丁醛:香蕉味、甜瓜味、绿叶味 茴香醛:山楂花香 2-丁酮:清漆味 2-己酮:酮味,干酪味 桂皮醛: 刺鼻的药香,辣味 乙偶姻:扁桃香气

  22. 呈香物质--(五)酚类和萜烯类 苯酚、甲酚、酪氨酚 萜品醇:松木味,类萜烯味 苦樟醇:典型的花香 金合欢醇:特有的花香 香叶醇:玫瑰花香气,有桃味 橙花醇氧化物:新鲜、甜香似玫瑰香气

  23. 香味物质解析 • 名称 香味特性 含量(毫克/升) • 乙酸乙酯使酒发酸变味,有刺激性4.5—190 • 乙酸异戍酯香焦味、熟瓜香味、酸果糖味0.15—6.1 • 醋酸苯乙酯玖瑰花茶味0.2—5.1 • 苯乙醇玖瑰花香19—183 • 苯乙醛,乙基苯醇茉莉花茶香0.1—50 • 辛酸乙酯. 癸酸乙酯肥皂、蜡烛味0.9—6 • 己酸乙酯苹果、香焦香味1.5 • 牦牛儿醇玖瑰花香0.05 • 十一烷酸内酯桃子香味0.1—1.2 • 香草缩醛香子兰香味0.2—5 • 乙醛苹果香、清凉感0.1—20

  24. 香味物质解析 名称 香味特性 量(毫克/升) • 已醇生青树叶子味3—15 • 异丁醇植物草味、有热感28—170 • 辛醇蘑菇气味1—8 • 异戊醇花蕊香气520 • 丁酰化物塑料溶剂气味0.01 • 丁酸乙酯焦臭、奶酪臭0.04—10 • 丁酸油漆味0.4 • 苯乙烯溶剂味0.1

  25. 微量物质(零点几至几十毫克) • 苯乙酸蜂蜜香 • 乙偶烟扁桃(巴旦杏味) • 茴香醛山楂花香 • 苯乙醛苦杏仁香 • 肉桂醛桂皮辛香 • 苯丙醛丁香花香 • 氰醇苯甲醛草莓香 • 丁二酮 榛子、奶油香 • 甘草醛甘草香 • 己二烯醇老鹳草、天竺葵气味 • 己烯醇、己烯醛青草气味 • 里那醇 玖瑰木香 • 里那醇氧化物樟脑气味 • 胡椒醛刺槐、天芥菜味 • 甲基邻氨基苯酯桔子香、很浓花蕊香

  26. THE CLASSIFICATION OF ODOURS • The olfactory sense is extremely sensitive. • Our olfactory sensitivity to many chemical substances far exceeds that of laboratory reagents.

  27. THE CLASSIFICATION OF ODOURS • There have been many attempts at odor classification. • The one we shall introcuce has ten. listing those odors regularly encountered in wines: animal, balsamic香脂, woody, chemical, spicy, empyreumatic烧焦的, ester, floral, fruity and vegetal.

  28. Animal smell • The animal group of smells refers on the one hand to the musky character of some aromatic grape varieties and on the other to the smells of meat, even game that one finds in some old wines.

  29. Balsamic and woody • The balsamic group (from the word balm) comprises those odors related to pine, resin and incense薰香smells • The woody group to those deriving from the evolution of tannins or from oak storage casks.

  30. Chemical odors and ester group • Chemical odors come from acetic acid and hydrogen sulphide, for example. • The ester group consists of smells related to acetic esters (ethyl esters and the esters of higher alcohols) and to the esters of fatty acids, all by-products of alcoholic fermentation.

  31. Spicy bouquet and empyreumatic group • A spicy bouquet is sometimes found in certain fine wines. • The empyreumatic group are burnt, smoky, roasted odors.

  32. Floral, fruity and vegetal • Floral, fruity and vegetal categories are more commonly in young than in old wines. • Lime blossom, rose, and vine flowers, blackcurrant, raspberry and peach, grassy and herby smells, are all smells regularly encountered in the widely varied aromas of wine.

  33. OLFACTORY MEASUREMENT • The only means we have of measuring the odor of any substance is a physiological one using our own sense of smell as the apparatus.

  34. The aromas of wines are usually compared to aromas in nature • FlowersIn white wines, springtime wild flowers, and in reds the perfumes of the more strongly colored flowers (rose, violet etc.) • FruitApricot, banana, apple, lemon and pineapple in white wines; strawberry, raspberry, peach and cherry in red wines

  35. The aromas of wines are usually compared to aromas in nature • Dried fruit and nutsUsually the smell of dried fruit appears with age. Toasted almonds in whites, dried figs in reds. • Sweet flavoringVanilla, aniseed • Herbs and leavesFresh mint, pine, tobacco • ToastedToast, coffee, cocoa, tea

  36. The aromas of wines are usually compared to aromas in nature • Spices and herbsPepper laurel, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, thyme, basil, juniperTruffles • Food and drinkBeer butter cider honey cognac • Other aromasLeather amber animal

  37. THE CLASSIFICATION OF ODORS--8 (一)动物气味 animal  (二)香脂气味 balsam (三)烧焦气味 toast (四)化学气味 chemical (ester) (五)香料气味 spicy (六)花香 floral (七)果香 fruity (八)植物与矿物气味vegetal and mineral (woody) 气味的分类香气分类是香气分析的基础

  38. 气味的分类香气分类是香气分析的基础 (一)动物气味  (二)香脂气味 (三)烧焦气味 (四)化学气味 (五)香料气味 (六)花香 (七)果香 (八)植物与矿物气味

  39. 野味(所有野兽、野禽的气味) 脂肪味 腐败(肉类)味 肉味 麝香味 猫尿味Muscat 在葡萄酒中: 主要是麝香(源与芳香型品种) 肉味、脂肪味(成年老酒) 腐败味:微生物破败 (一)动物气味

  40. 所有树脂 刺柏 香子兰 松油 安息香 In wine:各种树脂的气味 (二)香脂气味指芳香植物的香气

  41. 熏 烤 干面包 巴旦杏仁 干草 咖啡 木头 动物皮 松油 是葡萄酒成熟过程中单宁变化或溶解橡木成分形成的(焦、烟熏除外) (三)烧焦气味

  42. 酒精 丙酮 醋 酚 苯 硫 乳酸 碘 氧化 酵母 微生物 (四)化学气味 不同程度损坏葡萄酒的质量

  43. (五)香料气味包括所有用作作料的香料 • 月桂 • 胡椒 • 桂皮 • 姜 • 干草 • 薄荷 • 存在于一些优质、陈酿时间长的红酒中

  44. 堇菜 山楂 玫瑰 柠檬 茉莉 椴树 葡萄 鸢尾 天竺葵 杨槐 (六)花香 包括所有的花香

  45. 覆盆子(raspberry) 樱桃(cherry) 草莓 石榴 醋栗 杏 桃 橙(citrus fruits) 苹果 梨 香蕉 无花果 核桃 黑加仑子(black currants) 红加仑子(red currants) 干果:氧化陈酿酒中出现 (七)果香 包括所有的果香。常见的有:

  46. (八) 植物与矿物气味 • 主要有青草、落叶、块根、蘑菇、湿青苔、湿土、青叶等气味

  47. Aromas in white wine--essence Fruity Aromas: • 1 Lemon • 2 Grapefruit • 3 Pineapple • 4 Lychee • 5 Muscat • 6 Pear