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PHYS-H406 – Nuclear Reactor Physics

PHYS-H406 – Nuclear Reactor Physics

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PHYS-H406 – Nuclear Reactor Physics

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  1. PHYS-H406 – Nuclear Reactor Physics 3-2-0 Academic year 2014-2015

  2. Nuclear installations in Belgium (Source: SPF Economie, AMPERE Commission report) (Source: World Nuclear Association website, 22/09/2014)

  3. Beginning of August 2014 Detailed installed power in MWe (Source: World Nuclear Association website, 22/09/2014) Final shutdown in 2015 (nuclear phaseout law, governmental decision of Summer 2012) Lifetime extension until 2025 (nuclear phaseout law, governmental decision of Summer 2012) Temporary shutdown from June (D3)/September (T2) 2012 until May 2013, then from March 25, 2014 on:microcracks in the reactor vessel detected during their decennial revision Total capacity larger than originally (installed power increased when steam generators (see description of a PWR) were replaced

  4. And now… Detailed installed power in MWe ? (Source: World Nuclear Association website, 22/09/2014) ? ? Lifetime extension till 20?? (security of supply, future governmental decision) Lifetime extension until 2025 (nuclear phaseout law, governmental decision of Summer 2012) Temporary shutdown from June (D3)/September (T2) 2012 until May 2013, then from March 25, 2014 on:seehttp://www.fanc.fgov.be/fr/page/dossier-pressure-vessel-doel-3-tihange-2/1488.aspx Sabotage at the turbine level in Doel 4, August 5, 2014: expected restart of operation in early December 2014, early January 2015?

  5. Nuclear installations in the world (1/2) (Source: World Nuclear Association website, 22/09/2014)

  6. Nuclear installations in the world (Source: World Nuclear Association website, 22/09/2014)

  7. Some facts… • Between 50 and 55% of electricity generation in Belgium due to the electronuclear channel • Law concerning nuclear phase-out still applicable in Belgium… and already not literally applied for Tihange 1 • Construction of MYRRHAat the BelgianNuclearResearch Center (SCK-CEN) in Mol (expected for 2023-25)  Researchreactorwitha fastspectrum: accelerator-driven system, bothsubcritical and critical configurations possible, cooled down by a liquid Pb-Bi eutectic, prototype of a generation-IVreactor (Source: SCK-CEN Mol)

  8. Some facts… (cont’d) Even in the assumption of… + Dismantling of the Belgian power plants + Management of radioactive waste huge needs in the world nuclear industry of highly-qualified staff • Despite the Fukushima event, many plants are under construction or planned, both in neighbouring and emerging countries (new plants (Finland), EPRs in France, projects of new constructions (UK)…) • Few countries took a decision against nuclear energy after Fukushima (Germany, Switzerland, Italy) • Other applications of nuclear energy beside electricity generation

  9. And probably … • Lifetime extension of (some of) the current Belgian nuclear power plants (lack of technologically effective or mature alternatives) • Environmental constraints and climate changes • Necessary short- and mid-term reflection on the Belgian and European energy policy • Ambitious research programs for the development of new concepts of reactors: inherently safer, producing less waste and operationally more flexible (Generation IV)

  10. Objectives of the program in nuclear engineering • Technical expertise • Nuclear engineering  modeling of power plants • For their exploitation (including control/safety) • For research • Contacts with the nuclear industry and research institutions like e.g. SCK-CEN in Mol • Ionizing radiations  dosimetry and radiation protection • Open-mindedness to the energy generation issue in a broad sense

  11. The educational program in Nuclear Engineering at ULB MA1 • PHYS-H406 – Nuclear reactor physics (3-2-0) – P.E. Labeau • PHYS-H408 – Operation, control and safety of nuclear power plants (2-1-0) – J.J. Van Binnebeek et N. Hollasky (Bel-V) • PHYS-H405 – Physique nucléaire (3-2-0) – P. Capel • PHYS-H407 – Métrologie nucléaire (2-0-4) – N. Pauly (+ possibly the project) Visit of a power plant (Tihange or Doel)

  12. Lab sessions using industrial codes in the GDF Suez-Tractebel premises MA2 – option nuclear engineering • PHYS-H512 – Thermalhydraulics of nuclear power plants (2-1-1) – P. Raymond (CEA, France) • PHYS-H513 – Advanced reactors and nuclear fuel cycles (3-0-0) – D. Haas (European Commission) and P. Baeten (SCK-CEN) • PHYS-H514 – Reliability and safety (1.5-1.5-0) – P.E. Labeau • PHYS-H523 – Nuclear safety methodologies (1-1-1) – P.E. Labeau Lab sessions (on research reactors!!) at the Belgian nuclear research center SCK-CEN in Mol

  13. MA2 – option nuclear engineering (cont’d) • GEST-H506 – Energy Policy and Management (2-0-0) – S. Furfari (Commission Européenne) • PHYS-Y017 – Thermal Power Plants and their Environmental impact (3-0-0) – VUB • MATH-H507 – Méthodes de Monte Carlo (1-1-0) – A. Dubus

  14. MA2 • Opportunities of a 3-month, 10-ECTS internship (possibly abroad) • Master thesis (in the faculty or in the nuclear sector) • Study year at the INSTN (Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucléaires, Commissariat à l’EnergieAtomique)  program called “GénieAtomique” : • One term of courses (CEA Saclay or Cadarache) • A second term for the internship (possibly in the USA)

  15. Objectives of this course Knowing that the energy produced in a nuclear reactor comes from fissions of heavy nuclei induced by incident neutrons: • Set up the balance of the neutron population in a reactor, given all possible interactions between the neutrons and their environment • Study solution methods for this balance equation • Establish under which conditions the fission chain reaction reaction is self-sustained • … … and more generally: • Study the modeling of particle transport phenomena • Interpret physically the associated mathematical formalism

  16. Course organisation: 60% theory, 40% exercises • Lecture notes of R.Beauwens in French (but slight differences) + Powerpoint files onhttp://mntek3.ulb.ac.be/pub/PHYS-H-406/ • Reference book: Nuclear reactor analysis, J.J. Duderstadt, L.J. Hamilton (all figures, unless otherwise stated, come from these two references) • Presentation of a PWR design and operation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-1MK2WJSgdg (French), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MSFgmLW1Crw (English) • Calendar of lectures and exercises: see excel file on web page • Exercises: compulsory! • No project this year • Absences during the tutorials: mark obtained for the exercises during the exam weighted by the percentage of presence during the tutorials • Mark made of 60% for the theory and 40% for the exercises of the exam • Written exam (th+ex) for the 1st session, oral exam for the 2nd • Course still being modified  comments welcome