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  1. FOOD COMMODITIES MILK Milk is produced in the mammary glands of MAMMALS to feed their young. In the UK we mainly drink cow’s milk, but also sheep and goat’s milk. Some people do not eat animal products so do not drink milk. Others are allergic to milk from mammals. So can buy ‘plant milks’ – soya, oat, rice and coconut. They are often enriched with vitamins.

  2. Nutritional Value PROTEIN: HIGH BIOLOGICAL VALUE. Cow’s milk 3% protein (human 1% which is why you don’t give cow’s milk to babies as it can damage their kidneys.). FAT: saturated fat and unsaturated fats. Cow’s milk 3-4% fat. VITAMINS: good amount of A and D – especially in summer when grazing on grass outside. Some Vit B, little Vit C. CRBOHYDRATES: cow’s milk 5% lactose – milk sugar. Human 7%. MINERALS: calcium and good amount of phosphorus, sodium and potassium. Little iron. WATER: 90% water.

  3. TYPES OF MILK Fat (cream) in milk floats to top if left to stand. Milk is often HOMOGENISED to prevent this by being passed through a fine sieve that breaks up fat into tiny droplets that stay evenly throughout milk. Milk can be SKIMMED to remove fat – cream floating on top is removed. WHOLE MILK – no fat removed – 3.9% fat. SEMI-SKIMMED MILK – 1.5% fat. SKIMMED MILK – 0.1% fat. Milk will go off easily, so to make it last longer and safe to drink, it is HEAT TREATED. PASTEURISATION: heated to 72degrees C for 15 secs. Cooled to below 10degrees C very quickly. HTST – High Temperature Short Time pasteurisation. Keep refrigerated and use within a few days. ULTRA HEAT TREATED: UHT or LONG LIFE milk. Heated to 132degreesC for 1 sec, cooled and packed into sealed packs. Stored, unopened, for several months. When opened, treat like pasteurised milk. DRIED MILK: dried, stored and mixed with water to reconstitute. When dry, last for several months. CANNED MILK: Evaporated milk or Condensed milk (added sugar). Heating to reduce water content also kills bacteria.