Framework for ASEAN 2015:A Roadmap for Schools John Addy S. Garcia, PhDDe La Salle University
ASEAN 2015 Benefits (Runckel, 2012) • BENEFITS • regional cooperation • improve efficiency • more attractive than individual countries • emerging market • focusing on SMEs • tourism opportunity • internationalization of health care
Competitiveness Assessment and Roadmap Action Agenda National Consultation Workshop on a Competitive Philippines in ASEAN 2015 (DOST/NCRP) POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR PHILIPPINE COMPETITIVENESS Professional Competitiveness (PRC) Roadmap Action Agenda
Roadmap to 2015 Competitiveness of Filipino Professionals (PRC initiative) Competitiveness of graduates of Philippine Educational Institutions
Keypoints(condensed from Drake-Brockman, 2012) • Global Competitiveness of the Philippines • Philippine Professionals and Global Market • ASEAN Economic Community 2015 • Assessing Competitiveness • Assessing Competitiveness among Filipino Professionals • Competitiveness Issues Facing Selected Professions: Engineering, Accountancy, Nursing • Competitiveness Roadmap
Global Competitiveness of the Philippines Key Directions (Drake-Brockman, 2012) Implications/Action • Promote export of services • Comply with bilateral, regional, and international commitments to facilitate inflow of foreign services and services providers (inbound/outbound) • Priority Mutual Recognition Arrangements (MRAs) - ASEAN • Awareness of key priorities of the profession and the government • Strengthen linkages with government regulatory bodies and professional organizations
Philippine Professionals and Global Market Key Directions (Drake-Brockman, 2012) Implications/Action • PRC highlights the need for more data-driven and evidence-based assessment of the global competitiveness of Filipino professionals • Curricular reform responsive to global competitiveness assessment
ASEAN Economic Community 2015 Key Directions (Drake-Brockman, 2012) Implications/Action • 10-country integrated economy by 2015 • Trade (customs modernization standard and conformity and services liberalization), • investments, • agriculture, • consumer protection, and • ratification of transportation agreements. • Looking at ASEAN as a market (e.g., international student enrollment, employment opportunities for graduates)
ASEAN Economic Community 2015 ASEAN FTA Implications • ASEAN+6 • ASEAN-China • ASEAN-Japan • ASEAN-Korea • ASEAN-Australia and New Zealand • ASEAN-India • Looking beyond OECD, Middle East, and US • Aligning with ASEAN+6 standards and market demands • Establishing linkages with ASEAN+6 Education and Industry Partners
Assessing Competitiveness of the Services Sector Key Points (Drake-Brockman, 2012) • Services play a vital role in national growth, development, and job creation • Accounts for 50% of economic activity, and employment • Growth in services sector is positively correlated with developing countries’ transition to middle income status
Assessing Competitiveness Among Filipino Professionals Key Directions (Drake-Brockman, 2012) Implications/Action To know • where the strengths and weaknesses of the professions • Where and how international business opportunities might be maximized • How defensive their international posture needs to be and why • Parallel assessment of quality of graduates vis-a-vis (local, national, regional, international) competitors
Assessing Competitiveness Among Filipino Professionals Key directions (Drake-Brockman, 2012) Implications To know • What needs to be done to get the Philippine domestic house in order fast (including the tertiary education system) • Implement CHED, PRC guidelines • Conduct competitiveness assessment of graduates (tracer studies, exit interviews, industry FGDs)
Factors affecting Services competitiveness (Drake-Brockman, 2012) • Endowments, human capital (talent, education, skills, ideas, culture of customer focus) • Investment in intangible assets • Enabling digital infrastructure • Quality of institutions • Efficiency of domestic regulation • Connectedness with the International Market • Services business stakeholder consultation • Policy focus
Factors affecting Services competitiveness Key Points (Drake-Brockman, 2012) Implications/action • Services are more skills-intensive than other sector • Creating environment for nurturing talent, skills and ideas are critical in attracting international work • Relies heavily on innovation • Developing global mindset among graduates • Curricular programs responsive to both local and international demands • Focusing on developing core competencies (talents, skills, ideas) • Emphasizing innovation
Factors affecting Services competitiveness (Drake-Brockman, 2012) Local Competitiveness International Competiveness • Whether supply of skills is sufficient, relative to demand • Getting the balance between ensuring high professional standards and meeting market demand • Whether new professional skill set is becoming necessary • Whether local professionals can attract foreign clients and what level of value-add services • Whether Philippine professional offer professional value for money, and in what categories of practice
Competitiveness in simple terms(Drake-Brockman, 2012) • Professional Competitiveness as a function of • Numbers • Quality • Quality assurance • Practice • Continuing education
Competitiveness Assessment Criteria (Drake-Brockman, 2012) • Market conditions and trends • Skill shortages can suggest graduates are in-demand, hence competitive • Core competency standards • Technical standards above or at par with regional best practice • Quality assurance • Strong international confidence in domestic regulatory systems • Salary/fee expectations • Prices not higher than regional average • Language skills and personal attributes • International clients are attracted by communication skills, flexibility, adaptability, and initiative
PRC Professional Services Competitiveness Assessment (Drake-Brockman, 2012)
Competitiveness Issues: Engineering • Competency • At par or higher than most ASEAN economies • Top markets: Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei • Less informed about: Indonesia and Thailand • Significantly under informed: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam • CPE not mandatory • Quality Assurance • Not yet outcomes-based education compliant • Not yet a signatory to the Washington Accord • No Philippine engineers listed among the ASEAN Registered Engineers
Competitiveness Issues: Engineering • Personal Attributes • Competitive in English-speaking markets • Has reputation for being highly flexible, fast learners, multi-taskers, able to fit-in in any team (including supervisory levels) • Can rise to meet work-place challenges • International Value for Money • Salary and fee-level expectations at the low end of the ASEAN-6 market • Competitive edge in high value ASEAN market (Singapore and Malaysia)
Competitiveness Issues: Engineering • Domestic and International Skills Shortages • Local skills shortage, in both rural and urban areas • Engineering faculty skills shortage • Varying degree of awareness of competitiveness among professionals Engineering competitiveness suffers due to absence of: • Well-equipped university laboratories • Strong R&D environment and of any articulated policy on innovation • Limitations on foreign equity
Competitiveness Issues: Accountancy • Competency • High competency standards • Adopts international standards • High marketable profession; popular college course • Not threatened by foreign professionals • Entry into international job markets • PRB upgrading standards of accountancy teachers • External accreditation of accountancy schools
Competitiveness Issues: Accountancy • Quality Assurance • not yet compliant IFAC obligations • initiatives to develop and improve local quality assurance systems in the profession • Adoption of international standards and code of ethics • Personal attributes • Familiarity with US, British, and Japanese system • Regional hub for talent development • Lack of skills to market the profession internationally
Competitiveness Issues: Accountancy • Employment in BPO sector, but at lower levels • Emerging employment in Knowledge-Process Outsourcing (KPO) • Value for Money • Salary and fee level expectation are competitive across ASEAN • Skills shortages • Skills shortages in the provinces • Underemployment • High staff turnover affected by accreditation, workload, and seasonal availability of temporary staff
Competitiveness Issues: Nursing • Skills shortages • High local unemployment and underemployment • Overseas employment due to Migration and not Trade • Limited preferred destinations • Limited overseas employment due to depressed global economic climate • Large ageing population in OECD countries provides high medium term work opportunities • Lack of local funding to hire more nurses in hospitals • Lack of nursing teachers • Inclusion of employment for nurses in trade agreements with ASEAN, Japan and Australia
Competitiveness Issues: Nursing • Value for Money • Reluctant to go to lower wage destinations or alternative markets • Few work at an entrepreneurial level • Personal attributes • Uninterested in management positions in offshore markets • Monetary consideration had negative impact on the perception of the profession
Competitiveness Issues: Nursing • Competency and Quality Assurance • Updated curriculum • Credentialing programme for career pathways • Amendment of law • Nursing board actively monitored quality of nursing education, closed 80+ substandard schools
Competitiveness Roadmap (Garelli, 2011) • an attempt to describeand assessthe main issues that will affect the world competitiveness landscape over a specific time period • subjective assessment which aims to bring some coherence to the multitude of issues that are said to be having an impact – sooner or later – on the competitiveness landscape
Competitiveness Roadmaps • PRC mandated all regulatory boards to prepare and disseminate competitiveness roadmaps for all regulated professions
Competitiveness Roadmaps for Schools • Is it important and practical for HEIs to conduct and disseminate competitiveness roadmaps, similar to what PRC requires from regulated professions?
Competitiveness Assessment and Roadmap Action Agenda National Consultation Workshop on a Competitive Philippines in ASEAN 2015 (DOST/NCRP) POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR PHILIPPINE COMPETITIVENESS Professional Competitiveness (PRC, APO, CHED, HEIs) Roadmap Action Agenda
Roadmap action agenda (Drake-Brockman, 2012) Action Agenda for the Profession Education and Skills Issue Action Agenda to prepare Professionals R&D Innovation, Knowledge-Infrastructure Policy and Regulatory Focus Promoting and Facilitating PHL capability globally and regionally Investment Climate & Trade Issues
Roadmap Action Agenda Education and Skills Issues (Drake-Brockman, 2012) How to boost the availability and expertise of the professional practitioners to ensure they are positioned to take advantage of regional and global business opportunities? How can QA frameworks be established? Which workforce issues should be addressed?
Roadmap Action Agenda R&DInnovationKnowledge-Infrastructure (Drake-Brockman, 2012) What could be done to boost the ability of PHL professional services sector to increasingly improve productivity through innovation? How could a higher level of collaboration be encouraged between the private sector, academia, and government agencies?
Roadmap Action Agenda Policy &RegulatoryFocus (Drake-Brockman, 2012) Is a higher level of support needed from the policy or other regulatory institutions to help improve the profession’s access to global or regional opportunities?
Roadmap Action Agenda Promoting &Facilitating PHL capabilityglobally ®ionally (Drake-Brockman, 2012) What might be done to improve the profession’s “branding” either domestically or internationally?
Road Map Action Agenda InvestmentClimate Issues &Trade Issues (Drake-Brockman, 2012) Funding and investment Implementation of ASEAN MRAs
Discussion Points • To what extent will the University initiate, participate, or contribute to the challenge of preparing globally competitive graduates/professionals? • What action agenda can be taken in relation to: • Assessment of competitiveness of graduates • Professional education • Advocacy for quality assurance • Promotion of innovation • Addessing the challenges of global competitiveness?
ASEAN & Philippine Qualifications Framework Excerpts from the Presentation of PRC Chair TeresitaManzala during the PACUCOA General Assembly in December 2013
The ASEAN Economic Community 2015 Single Market and Production Base Free flow of professionals Free flow of skilled workers Free flow of goods Free flow of investment Free flow of capital (Manzala, 2013)
The ASEAN Mutual Recognition Arrangements (MRA’s) Education Training Mobility Recognition Experience Certificates Licenses (Manzala, 2013)