WHAT’SBUILT ENVIRONMENT ? By: Roslaili Abdul Aziz
Introduction • The course begins with the understanding of physical environment as a whole. • The built environment is an integral part of the infrastructure necessary for human survival. • Current concerns over the environmental sustainability of our biosphere for future generations are being scrutinized on the fringes of the higher education.
“World Scientists Call for Action” • In 1997, at the Kyoto Climate Summit. The statement urged all the government leaders to: • demonstrate a new commitment to protecting the global environment; • act immediately to prevent potentially devastating consequences of human-induced global warming.
Basic Idea of Environmental Sustainability To leave the Earth in as good or in a better shape for future generations than we found it for ourselves.
LETS DEFINE IT • Artificial or man-made surroundings built to serve for a particular purpose, e.g. human activities ranging from the large-scale civic surroundings to the personal places. • Features of the layout or design of the built environment have important influences on the activities that take place within it.
In landscape architecture, the built environment is identified as opposed to the natural environment, with the recognition that places like large public parks may have the look, feel, and nourishing quality of natural surroundings [while being completely artificial and "built," thus blurring the line between the two].
Malaysian Scenario • By looking into Malaysian environmental picture, several incidents have clearly shown that the catastrophic consequences of all the environmental problems due to the imbalance development growth.. • cause devastation to the environment and brought miseries for the people and landscape.
BEST PRACTICE • The environmental considerations must increasingly be integrated with development planning and building design.
Principle According to Esmond Reid. (1988): “Complexity, Circularity and Diversity are three underlying essential features in natural dynamically stable systems”
Building Functions • A need to create an understanding of how buildings can be ‘designed for the environment’. • A building should be understood as an ecosystem through which natural and manufactured resources continually flow.
Aim of Learning • The ultimate aim is for students to have a responsible attitude towards the environmental sustainability of the Earth, an appreciation of its resources and beauty and an assumption of an environmental ethic.
GREEN BUILDING • Promote the construction of buildings that are healthier for the occupants and healthier for the environment. • Reducing energy cost. • Improving indoor air quality and comfort.
CASE STUDY: LANDSLIDE • Kuala Lumpur, 6 Disember 2008, 4 pagi: 14 banglo tertimbus tanah runtuh di Bukit Antarabangsa. Empat orang di percayai maut dan 93 orang telah diselamatkan. Manakala terdapat ramai lagi masih terperangkap dalam kejadian tersebut. Misi menyelamat dan pencarian masih sedang dijalankan. (Utusan Malaysia)
Factors Influencing Tragedy • Water ingress into slopes and by soil erosion during heavy rain, where the drainage isn’t regularly maintained. • Leaking buried water-carrying services or ground water leaking. • Lack of maintenance of slopes, retaining walls, and drains on hillsides. • Over development area with insufficient & inadequate infrastructure.
Factors Influencing Tragedy • Lack of competent expertise in the design, construction, site supervision and maintenance, and communication amongst various parties involved during construction on hillsides. • Lack of compliance by Local Authoritities in giving approvals withour compliance with guidelines, proper planning procedures.
At other times, human actions are short-sighted, creating uncomfortable situations that are less fit for healthy human activities and negatively impact the environments that surround us and with which we are in constant interaction.
Effect Towards Physical Activity Levels And Public Health. • The built environment is broadly defined to include land use patterns, the transportation system, and design features that together provide opportunities for travel and physical activity. • The built environment has recently come under scrutiny as an important potential contributor to reduced levels of physical activity.
Physical activity is defined as bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above the basal level. • The built environment is one of many variables thought to affect physical activity levels. • The built environment can facilitate or constrain physical activity.
For example, ready access to parks and trails may facilitate walking for exercise; sidewalks and mixed-use development are likely to be more important to encourage walking for local shopping and other utilitarian purposes. • The built environment can be changed in ways that increase opportunities for and reduce barriers to physical activity.
Therefore.. • Built environments that facilitate more active lifestyles and reduce barriers to physical activity are desirable because of the positive relationship between physical activity and health.
Current Issues On Building Planning • Sick Building Syndrome • Flash Flood • Global Warming • Climate Change
Sick Building Syndrome • Relating to indoor air quality. • A sick building: one that makes people sick because it has become infested with mold, mildew, spores, and other airborne microorganism.
Health problems commonly associated with poor indoor air quality: allergic reactions, respiratory problems, eye irritation, sinusitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. Contributors: • failure to keep fans, ductwork and filters clean. • Particle & gases released by office equipment, carpets, paints, cleaning solvents.
KEYS TO PREVENT SBS Through Air Exchange To eliminate contaminated air & bring in fresh air: • Ventilation • Air infiltration rates • Airflow rates in ducts • Airflow patterns • Fume exhaust
Define Flash Flood !! Flash flooding occurs when a barrier holding back water fails or when water falls too quickly on saturated soil or dry soil that has poor absorption ability. • A body of water which rises to overflow land which is not normally submerged and subsides after only a few hours. • Flash floods are most frequently associated with violent, convectional storms which tend to be of short duration, often measured in minutes rather than hours (IASH, 1974).
CASE STUDY: USA • 2010 June 11 - the Little Missouri River rose over 20 feet in only a few hours, killing at least 20 people. • The flood had caught campers by surprise while they slept in their tents,and destroyed a number of cabins.
Case Study: Kuala Lumpur Flash floods in Kuala Lumpur are caused by the combination of various factors: ● the high rainfall intensities, ● inadequate drainage, ● blocked and silted drainage system due to the rapid development, ● improper garbage disposal especially by the squatters.
Effects to KL civilian • Major trunk roads will be flooded. • Commuters usually caught in traffic jams for a few hours on ends. • Residents of some settlements have also to be evacuated to relief centres and safer grounds. • Daily socio-economic activities would be disrupted, effects on nation’s economy.
Global Warming • The result of a normal climactic swing in the direction of increased temperature = a natural climatic adjustment. • The primary cause of global warming is Carbon Dioxide emissions. CO2 is being pumped into our atmosphere at an insane pace; 8 billion tons of CO2 entered the air last year.
CO2 • Due to natural activity such as volcanic eruptions and people breathing. But the Earth is equipped to easily absorb those into the normal regenerative process. • Act. the beginning of global warming was caused by fossil fuels being burned and emitting plenty of CO2.
Actual Cause of the CO2 Emissions • 12-33% of all CO2 released into the atmosphere is related to buildings. • In newly constructed buildings, production of materials used in building and energy used during construction are sited as the major cause of carbon dioxide emissions.
Climate Change Encompasses all forms of climatic inconstancy (that is, any differences between long-term statistics of the meteorological elements calculated for different periods but relating to the same area) regardless of their physical causes.
Singapore: A leader in creating greener industry • Lead the world in implementation of cutting edge clean technologies. • A shining example is Singapore’s new Clean Tech Industrial Park. • To achieve energy efficiency, minimum eco-impact and total sustainability. • Simple ideas such as implementation of underground parking and passive lighting are blended with high tech solar power installations.
Can Malaysia challenging Singapore in implementing green high technologies? We have lots of skyscrapers: Petronas Twin Tower, KL Tower, etc.. But are they designed to be energy efficient?