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MARC in 2011

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MARC in 2011

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  1. MARC in 2011 Alan Hopkinson a.hopkinson@mdx.ac.uk

  2. Early MARC • MARC developed by Library of Congress 1966; MARC II and UK MARC developed in 1968 (UK MARC has more subfields)MARC II > LC MARC > US MARC > MARC21IFLA developed UNIMARC IN 1973Many features were improvement on MARC • Record structure (ISO 2709) remained static

  3. UNIMARC: origins • Joint project: Library of Congress, British Lib., National Library of Canada to develop an interpretative manual to improve consistency of UNIMARC as international exchange format • Conversions developed between US MARC and UNIMARC and UK MARC and UNIMARCUNIMARC adopted by countries as a national exchange format: e.g. China, France, Italy, Japan, Portugal, South Africa, USSR, Yugoslavia

  4. MARC or UNIMARC? • In 1997 LC changed policy: • renamed US MARC > MARC21UNIMARC would not be used as international exchange format • Australia (1991), New Zealand and UK (2004) national libraries change from national format (e.g.UK MARC) to US MARC / MARC21

  5. Changes • UNIMARC continued to be used in most countries • France, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia and neighbours (COBISS’s COMARC), Russia (RUSMARC), Greece, China, Japan, Taiwan • South Africa, Czech Republic and Slovak Republic moved to MARC21

  6. MARC and cataloguing codes • Bibliographic exchange formats depend on cataloguing codes for their data element definition • UNIMARC hospitable to ISBD related formats • MARC21 hospitable to AACR > RDA (Resource Discovery and Access) • UNIMARC in process of implementing RDA

  7. Other definitions used in UNIMARC • Standard numbers, ISBN, ISMN, ISSN • Authority records (UNIMARC/A) • Classification schemes • National practices (UNIMARC)

  8. UNIMARC features • More logical structure (zoned) • 0xx Standard Numbers • 1xx Coded data • 2xx ISBD data • 3xx Notes • 4xx Linking data • 5xx Title Access points • 6xx Subject data • 7xx Name access points • 8xx National usage

  9. Granularity of subfields • UNIMARC 700 $aHopkinson$bAlan • MARC21 100 $aHopkinson, Alan

  10. Title field MARC21 v. UNIMARC • 24514$aThe printer's manual$h[microform] /$cby Caleb Stower ; with a new introduction by John Bidwell. The printer's companion / by Edward Grattan ; with a new introduction by Clinton Sisson. • 200 10$aThe printer's manual$bmicroform$fby Caleb Stower$gwith a new introduction by John Bidwell$cThe printer's companion$fby Edward Grattan$gwith a new introduction by Clinton Sisson

  11. Coded data • UNIMARC: Many different fields • 100 General Processing Data101 Language of the Item102 Country of Publication or Production105 Coded Data Field: Textual materials, Monographic106 Coded Data Field: Textual materials – Physical Attributes110 Coded Data Field: Continuing Resources115 Coded Data Field: Visual Projections, Videorecordings and Motion Pictures116 Coded Data Field: Graphics117 Coded Data Field: Three-dimensional artifacts and realia

  12. Coded data: MARC • 006 - Fixed-Length Data Elements - Additional Material Characteristics • 007 - Physical Description Fixed Field • 008 - Fixed-Length Data Elements • Character Position BK CF MP MU CR VM MX 00-05 Date entered on file ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ • 06 Type of date/Publication status ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

  13. UNIMARC governance • IFLA Core activity led by National Library of Portugal • Permanent UNIMARC Committee: 9 members from different countries plus UK plus LC/OCLC • Anyone can make suggestions via members • Meets formally once per year

  14. UNIMARC Guidelines • Guidelines for Using UNIMARC for Component Parts (May 1999) • Guidelines for Using UNIMARC for Microforms (May 1999) • Guidelines for Using UNIMARC for Older Monographic Publications (Antiquarian) (April 1998) • UNIMARC Minimal Level Record (Feb. 1999) • Multi-level Description: Encoding Options for UNIMARC (Feb. 1999) • Electronic Resources (Aug. 2000) • Music (July 2005) • Serials and Other Continuing Resources (October 2006)

  15. Use of MARC in internet age • Key library management systems implement UNIMARC (ISO 2709) • Import bibliographic records via Z39.50 • Bibliographic records sent in file from bookseller corresponding to book invoice • Records created by cataloguers where not available externally

  16. Exchange format record structure • ISO 2709 adopted as international standard in 1973 (based on magnetic tape structure) • MarcXML / MarcXchange, XML not ISO 2709 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> -<collection xmlns="http://www.loc.gov/MARC21/slim"> -<record> <leader>01142cam 2200301 a 4500</leader> <controlfield tag="001">92005291</controlfield> <controlfield tag="003">DLC</controlfield> <controlfield tag="005">19930521155141.9</controlfield> <controlfield tag="008">920219s1993 caua j 000 0 eng</controlfield> -<datafield tag="010" ind1="" ind2="“> <subfield code="a">92005291</subfield> </datafield> - <datafield tag="020" ind1="" ind2="“> <subfield code="a">0152038655 :</subfield> <subfield code="c">$15.95</subfield> </datafield>

  17. MarcXchange • ISO 25577: MarcXchange http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso25577/ISO_DIS_25577__E_.pdf • Contains UNIMARC examples

  18. New XML formats • MODS: Metadata Object Description Schema • Rich but not too rich metadata format • DL projects, archiving websites, OAI • METS: schema for containing digital data objects with their metadata • See standards showcase, ALA 2006 http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/mods-mets-ala/mods-mets-ala.html

  19. Future of MARC formats • XML is more exchangeable on the WWW • Despite XML alternatives, records are transferred via traditional ISO 2709 between suppliers and library management systems • Commercial reasons (easier to control) • Inertia (why change a system if it works) • Inflexibility of ISO 2709 helps

  20. Future of UNIMARC • Similar reasons as general reasons for MARC • Extensive use in various countries • Support from IFLA • Sources of records are being extended

  21. Thank you!