Colonization to Reconstruction: Early U.S. History Review
Columbus’s Arrival • 1492 • Landed on an island in the Carribean. • Thought he was in India • Called the people Indios • Claimed the island he Landed on and named it San Salvador -Died thinking he had found India
His impact on natives: • Enslaved them • Disease (mumps, measles, chicken pox, small pox, typhus) • His presence led to the downfall of many tribes
Columbus’s Impact on Africans? • Loss of native work force led to settlers bringing in Africans to help • Led to slavery and 10 millions slaves being brought over. • Civil War
His Impact on Europeans? • Started mass migrations • Started Columbian Exchange • Transfer of goods between Europe and the Americas
SPAIN LED THE EXPLORATION AND COLONIZATION OF THE AMERICAS • HERNAN CORTES CONQUERED THE AZTECS OF MEXICO • FRANCISCO PIZARRO CONQUERED THE INCAS OF PERU • THE QUEST FOR RICHES DROVE THE SPANISH TO ENSLAVE THE NATIVE POPULATION TO MINE FOR GOLD AND SILVER, WHILE A DESIRE TO CONVERT NATIVES TO CATHOLICISM LED TO THE BUILDING OF MISSIONS
Why were Spanish unstoppable? • Guns • Germs (killed as many as 90% of people) • Steel • Horses • Had only 508 men, 16 horses, and 10 cannons • How then were they able to take Mexico?
THE FIRST ENGLISH ARRIVED IN THE “NEW WORLD” AND ESTABLISHED A COLONY Jamestown 1607 1st permanent settlement in U.S. Captain John Smith and Pocohontas
John Smith’s Mistakes • Built town on a swamp • No women • No food • Bad water • Unlike Spanish there policy was total defeat of natives • How was it saved?
HOW DID THE ENGLISH COLONIES BECOME SO successful? ECONOMIC, RELIGIOUS, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTORS TOBACCO PLAYED A TREMENDOUS ROLE IN THE SUCCESS OF THE COLONY AS IT YIELDED HUGE PROFITS WHEN SOLD IN EUROPE LAND WAS USED AS AN INCENTIVE TO ATTRACT SETTLERS RELIGIOUS STRIFE BETWEEN CATHOLICS AND PROTESTANTS LED TO MASS MIGRATIONS OF BOTH GROUPS TO DIFFERENT COLONIES ECONOMIC CONDITIONS FOR THE AVERAGE ENGLISHMAN BECAME EVEN TOUGHER WITH THE INFUSION OF NEW RICHES INTO THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY BY THE SPANISH
The First!!!!!!!!!! THE PILGRIMS, RELIGIOUS SEPARATISTS FROM THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND, SAILED ON THE MAYFLOWER AND LANDED AT PLYMOUTH ROCK IN MASSACHUSETTS IN 1620 Thanksgiving Understand why they left Europe? Wanted to break away from the Church of England
THE PURITANS ARRIVED SHORTLY AFTER THE MORE RADICAL PILGRIMS. THEY WANTED TO “PURIFY” THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND (RATHER THAN SEPARATE LIKE THE PILGRIMS) TO REMOVE ALL TRACES OF CATHOLICISM. THEY PLANNED TO ESTABLISH CHURCHES IN THE “NEW WORLD” *knew they could be punished severely for this With the help of Puritans the New England Colonies were formed: Mass, New Hampshire, Conn, Rhode Island
Took 125 years to found 13 colonies • They existed primarily to benefit England • A lot of materials were exported to Europe from the Colonies.
Homework! • Do the Unit map on the 13 colonies and vocab words 1-14 next time.
AMERICAN REVOLUTION • CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION • PROTESTS ESCALATED • FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS • THE WAR BEGAN Slide 3
1. MERCANTILISM BASED ON THE BELIEF THAT THERE WAS A LIMITED AMOUNT OF WEALTH IN THE WORLD AND THE WAY TO GET THE MOST GOLD AND SILVER WAS TO HEAVILY REGULATE MANUFACTURING, TRADE, AND PRODUCTION WITHIN A COUNTRY AND ITS COLONIES. GREAT BRITAIN, FOR EXAMPLE, WOULD PURCHASE RAW MATERIALS FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES AT A LOW PRICE DETERMINED BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT. THEN THE COLONIES WERE REQUIRED TO PURCHASE THE FINISHED GOODS MANUFACTURED IN BRITAIN AT HIGH PRICES ALSO SET BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT. THE NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES WERE ONLY ALLOWED TO TRADE WITHIN THE BRITISH EMPIRE. Gov sets prices THIS SYSTEM LED TO BITTERNESS ON THE PART OF THE COLONISTS WHO HAD VERY LITTLE INPUT IN THEIR ECONOMIC POLICIES.
2. THE ENLIGHTENMENT INFLUENCED THE COLONISTS • JOHN LOCKE ARGUED THAT PEOPLE POSSESSED NATURAL RIGHTS SUCH AS LIFE, LIBERTY, AND PROPERTY. HE BELIEVED THE PURPOSE OF GOVERNMENT WAS TO PROTECT THOSE RIGHTS. • Believed that a social contract existed between people and gov. • People gave consent to be governed, in return people had right to overturn gov. • COLONIAL LEADERS BELIEVED THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT VIOLATED THESE IDEALS AND DISCUSSED STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME THE OPPRESSION OF KING GEORGE III LOCKE
3. THE GREAT AWAKENING • RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT THROUGHOUT THE COLONIES IN THE EARLY 1700s. IT WAS BASED ON REVIVALISM WHICH STRESSED INDIVIDUAL RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE RATHER THAN NEEDING CHURCH LEADERS TO CONNECT WITH GOD. • Challenged the authority of established churches. • New churches popping up everywhere
4. POPULATION EXPLOSION AND COLONIAL SELF-RULE • THE COLONIAL POPULATION INCREASED AT AN EXTREMELY FAST PACE AFTER 1700 • NEW ARRIVALS MADE UP OF: INDENTURED SERVANTS FROM EUROPE, SLAVES FROM AFRICA, AND BIRTHS FROM COLONISTS • CLEAN DRINKING WATER, PLENTY OF FOOD, AND GOOD CLIMATE WERE MAJOR CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO THE SPIKE IN BIRTHS BETWEEN 1680-1776 • Happy people = more people • Did not want to be run by a gov. across the ocean.
5. FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 1754-1763 • FOR OVER 100 YEARS THE FRENCH AND BRITISH HAD STRUGGLED FOR CONTROL OF NORTH AMERICA WHICH HAD RESULTED IN THREE EARLIER WARS • BOTH FRANCE AND ENGLAND WANTED TO EXPAND THEIR TERRITORY WEST OF THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS INTO THE OHIO VALLEY • French built a fort on British land • The British tried to evict them but failed. • A 22 yr old G. Washington led a militia to evict them but failed. Was crushed • He went in again with 1500 soldiers and were ambushed by French and Indians. • 2 horses shot out from him and 4 bullet holes through his clothes FRENCH POWDER HORN WITH RIVERS ENGRAVED ON IT
THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR FUELED THE DESIRE FOR INDEPENDENCE • COLONISTS UNIFIED FOR THE FIRST TIME BEHIND THE BRITISH TO DEFEAT THE FRENCH. THIS LED TO A SENSE OF PRIDE AND UNITY NOT EXPERIENCED PRIOR TO THE CONFLICT. • A new General led the way William Pitt. • Started winning victories therefore the natives joined the British because they wanted to be on the winning side. • War ends in 1763 with a British victory (what would of happened if the British would have lost?) • Terms of treaty: Britain claims all lands East of Miss. And Canada. And took Florida from Spain. France lost everything. • Look at map on Pg 38
What did the natives do? • British were not as kind to the natives • Pontiac the great Ottowa leader realized they were bad and attempted to fight back. • British offered blankets with small pox and this destroyed them. • To avoid further conflict the British ordered all colonists to not cross the Appalachians. Proclamation of 1763 So how does the French and Indian war help lead to the Revolution?
6. Taxes • THE BRITISH IMPOSED MANY TAXES ON THE COLONISTS TO PAY FOR THE WAR EFFORT WITHOUT ANY COLONIAL INPUT OR REPRESENTATION IN PARLIAMENT. • THE BRITISH RESTRICTED FURTHER WESTERN SETTLEMENT WITH THE PROCLAMATION LINE OF 1763. THE COLONISTS FELT ENTITLED TO THE LANDS GAINED DURING THE WAR THEY HAD HELPED WIN.
GREAT BRITAIN PASSED MANY RESTRICTIVE LAWS THAT SPARKED PROTEST ON THE PART OF THE COLONISTS • SUGAR ACT OF 1764 WHICH ACTUALLY LOWERED THE TAX ON SUGAR BUT TIGHTENED ENFORCEMENT OF THE LAW AND CRACKED DOWN ON SMUGGLING • STAMP ACT OF 1765 WHICH TAXED ALL PRINTED MATERIALS FROM NEWSPAPERS TO COLLEGE DIPLOMAS • TOWNSEND ACTS OF 1767 TAXED imported GOODS from britain AND CREATED A CUSTOMS BOARD TO DESTROY SMUGGLING • TEA ACT 1773 TAX TO PROTECT THE MONOPOLISTIC EAST INDIA TEA COMPANY • INTOLERABLE/COERCIVE ACTS 1774 WERE DESIGNED TO PUNISH COLONISTS FOR BOSTON TEA PARTY AND MAKE THEM SUBMIT TO THE WILL OF THE BRITISH KING (quartering act)
PROTESTS OVER THE NEW TAXES LED TO THE CREATION OF GROUPS SUCH AS THE SONS OF LIBERTY WHO WERE WILLING TO USE VIOLENCE IF NECESSARY TO CONVINCE THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT TO REPEAL THE LAWS MADE WITHOUT REPRESENTATION THE TAX COLLECTOR TARRED, FEATHERED, AND FORCED TO DRINK STEAMING HOT TEA
BOSTON MASSACRE1770 THE BRITISH SENT TROOPS TO BOSTON IN AN ATTEMPT TO RESTORE ORDER, HOWEVER A CLASH BETWEEN SOLDIERS AND TOWNSPEOPLE RESULTED IN 5 COLONISTS’ DEATHS. THE TROOPS WERE BASICALLY ACQUITTED IN A TRIAL, WHICH FUELED THE ANGER OF THE COLONISTS. ENGRAVING OF THE EVENT BY PAUL REVERE
BOSTON TEA PARTY 1773 THE MOST FAMOUS OF MANY PROTESTS AGAINST THE TEA ACT OF 1773, A TAX DESIGNED TO PROTECT THE BRITISH TEA MONOPOLY. ABOUT 50 MEMBERS OF THE SONS OF LIBERTY ORGANIZATION DRESSED UP AS MOHAWK INDIANS AND DUMPED THOUSANDS OF POUNDS OF TEA FROM 3 SHIPS INTO THE BOSTON HARBOR.
FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESSPHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA 1774 FIFTY SIX MEN FROM TWELVE COLONIES. MET TO DISCUSS THE INTOLERABLE ACTS PASSED BY PARLIAMENT TO PUNISH THE COLONISTS FOR THE BOSTON TEA PARTY. THEY DRAFTED THE DECLARATION OF RIGHTS AND GRIEVANCES TO BE SENT TO KING GEORGE. Stated that if British used force against the colonies. The Colonies should fight back. .
BRITISH TROOPS WERE SENT TO ARREST SAMUEL ADAMS AND JOHN HANCOCK IN LEXINGTON. COLONISTS WERE WAITING WITH WEAPONS AND FIGHTING BROKE OUT, WHICH STARTED THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION IN LEXINGTON AND CONCORD IN APRIL OF 1775. JOHN HANCOCK IN LEXINGTON 8 COLONISTS WERE KILLED. IN CONCORD 73 BRITISH TROOPS WERE KILLED AND 93 COLONISTS WERE KILLED. SAMUEL ADAMS
IN RESPONSE TO THE BLOODSHED THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS WAS CALLED IN PHILADELPHIA IN MAY 1775. THEY SENT A PETITION TO THE KING THAT BLAMED PARLIAMENT FOR THE PROBLEMS IN THE COLONIES AND ASKED HIM FOR RESOLUTION. THE CONGRESS RAISED AN ARMY OF 20,000 MEN AND ELECTED GEORGE WASHINGTON AS THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE MILITARY.
THOMAS PAINE AND COMMON SENSE WIDELY READ PAMPHLET PUBLISHED IN JANUARY OF 1776 THAT OUTLINED THE REASONS TO SEPARATE FROM GREAT BRITAIN
THE CONGRESS MET AGAIN IN JUNE 1776 AND COMMISSIONED THOMAS JEFFERSON TO DRAFT A DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. THE DOCUMENT HAD THREE PARTS: THE PURPOSE OF A GOVERNMENT, 27 REASONS FOR SEPARATION, AND THE OFFICIAL DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
56 MEN SIGNED THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE OVER SEVERAL MONTHS, WITH THE ADOPTION ON JULY 4, 1776
The War Begins • With the Declaration, the colonists were asking for war. • Colonists had to choose a side. • Loyalists-those still loyal to Britain and opposed Independence. • Most thought British would win, and wanted to avoid punishment • Some Africans because British promised Freedom to those who fought. • Natives also supported • Patriots-supporters of Independence
THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE LASTED UNTIL 1783 WITH MANY PIVOTAL MOMENTS FOR EACH SIDE WASHINGTON CROSSED THE DELAWARE RIVER BATTLE OF SARATOGA
The War • U.S. Led by Washington, • Idolized, acted like soldier, lived with them • Suffered a lot of early defeats. • Saratoga, Valley Forge
Life during war • Problems with paying soldiers. • Solution for getting more money. • Just make it • Problem? • Women’s roles
THE COLONISTS, WITH THE HELP OF THE FRENCH, FINALLY DEFEATED THE BRITISH AT THE BATTLE OF YORKTOWN 1781
The End • British Surrender at Yorktown • Were completely surrounded • Treaty of Paris 1783 • Colonies were now independent • Controlled everything to Miss. River.
A new Gov. • The citizens of U.S. Had to create a new gov. • Many favored a republic • Were citizens rule through elected rep • Many wanted democracy • Gov. directly by people
IN 1777 THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION WERE WRITTEN BY THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS AS THE FIRST INDEPENDENT GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. IT WAS OFFICIALLY ADOPTED IN 1781.
Laws • Each state had only one vote • Powers divided between state and nat. gov. • Nat. government had power to declare war, make peace, sign treaties • Could borrow money, set standard for money
THE ARTICLES REFLECTED THE FEAR OF A STRONG EXECUTIVE BRANCH AND LACKED THE ABILITY TO FUNCTION IN SEVERAL IMPORTANT AREAS
CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION Slide 3