Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1 Introduction
Anatomy: the study of the structure of the body Physiology: the study of how living things perform various functions of life. * This course will examine the anatomy and physiology of the human body. Anatomy and Physiology
Microscopic Anatomy: Dealing with individual molecules and biochemistry. Cytology: Structure of cells Histology: Studies how specialized cells work together to form tissues. Gross Anatomy: of organs Regional anatomy: specific region of body. Systemic anatomy: major organ systems. Cell Physiology: Function of organelles Organ Physiology: Cardiac physiology Renal physiology Systemic Physiology: Respiratory physiology: study of the respiratory organ system Pathological Physiology: Study of disease with its physiological effects of body systems.
Levels of Organization • Chemical or Molecular Level • Cellular Level of Organization: organelles • Tissues: several types of tissues will join together to form… • Organs: e.g. Stomach, liver, gall bladder will join together to form… • Organ systems: all the organ systems together make up… • Organism: highest level of living organization.
Organ System Groups • Organ systems of the body have been classified into eleven groups
Major Organs Skin Hair follicles Sweat glands nails Major Function Protection from: Environmental hazards Moisture Temperature control Integumentary
Major organs Bones Cartilage Bone marrow Major Function Support and protection of: Soft tissues Locomotion Mineral storage Blood formation Skeletal
Major organs Skeletal muscles Major Function Locomotion Support Heat production Muscular
Major Organs: Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nerves Major Function Direction immediate response to stimulus Coordinating activities of other organ systems Nervous
Major Organs: Glands: pituitary, thyroid, etc. Kidneys Pancreas Testes Ovaries Major Function: Directing long term changes in the activities of other organ systems. Hormone production Endocrine
Major Organs Heart Blood vessels Blood Major Functions: Internal transport of cells and dissolved materials including nutrients, wastes and gases. Cardiovascular
Major Organs Lymphatic vessels Lymph nodes Spleen Thymus Major Function: Defense against infection and disease Lymphatic
Major Organs Lungs Nasal cavities Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi, alveoli Major Functions Delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood Respiratory
Major Organs Salivary glands Pharynx, esophagus Stomach Small intestine Liver Gall bladder Pancreas Large intestine Major Function Processing of food and absorption of nutrients, minerals, vitamins and water Digestive
Major Organs Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra Major Function Elimination of excess water, salts and waste products Urinary
Major Organs Testes and accessory organs Penis Scrotum Uterus Ovaries Mammary glands Major Function Production of sex cells and hormones Reproductive
Homeostasis • Existence of a stable internal environment which allows the organism to survive • Disease: failure to maintain homeostasis • Adjustments that preserve homeostasis are called: Homeostatic Regulation
Homeostatic Regulation • 1. A stimulus is received by a receptor • 2. The information is carried from the receptor to a control center which interprets the stimulus and sends information through… • 3. an effector which in turn carries that information to target organs and tissues which… • 4. do something in response to the initial stimulus.
AUTOREGULATION Changes occur automatically when there is environmental variation Example: when cells in the blood need more oxygen they chemically dialate the blood vessels in that area. EXTRINSIC REGULATION Nervous system or endocrine system controls or adjusts many different systems simultaneously. Example: when you exercise: heart rate increases, blood flow is reduced to inactive organs (digestive system) Homeostatic Mechanisms(both are automatic)
Homeostatic Reactions • Negative Feedback (Teeter Totter) • Triggers and automatic response that corrects a variation outside of normal limits. • Most homeostatic reactions involve negative feedback. Example: body temperature
Homeostatic Regulation • Positive Feedback (Domino Effect) • Triggers an automatic response that REINFORCES a stimulus. • Not as common Example: labor and child birth