Marcus Garvey First National Hero of Jamaica 1887 – 1940 “Up! You mighty race, you can accomplish what you will.“ Marcus Garvey
Garvey was a Jamaican-born black nationalist who created a 'Back to Africa' movement in the United States. He became an inspirational figure for later civil rights activists. • He was bold; he was uncompromising and he was one of the most powerful orators on record. He could literally bring his audiences to a state of mass hysteria.
Ac Accomplishments • Formed the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) • He led the largest black movement in all of history • Publisher - Negro World, Black Man, The New Jamaican. • Campaigned against Jim Crow Laws, lynching, racial discrimination and denial of black voting rights
Accomplishments continued • Labour organizer (Costa Rica, Jamaica, USA) • Most dynamic African leader in the Western Hemisphere • Inspiration to Malcolm X and other Civil Rights Leaders • Economic Empowerment for Blacks • (Blackstar Line) • Negro Factories Corporation
UNIA Universal Negro Improvement Association • Promoted Black Nationalism (separate territory for blacks as a goal) • Pan African Unity – Unity among all black African people. (black pride, ignore white racism) • Believed in separatism and segregation – separate both races - purity of black and white races. • Millions of members if the 1920’s. Mostly poor working class blacks. Bigger than the Civil Rights Movement. • Garvey wanted American blacks to go back to Africa to create a new empire.
Influences • Inherited love of books from father. (labour class) • He was a printer. • Observed working conditions for blacks around West Indies and Central America. • Inspired by Booker T. Washington.
Challenges • Many failed endeavors. (Printing, Transportation, Bakery) • Poor management and broad focus led to demise of ventures (Blackstar Line) • Imprisoned then deported in mid 1920’s on fraud charges. (trumped up charges based on financial problems)
Closure Activity • Interview a friend who will be Marcus Garvey and create 5 questions that you will ask your interviewee. • You will then change roles with your partner and repeat process.