Observations on gender and EFA NAPS • EFA NAPS not adequately gender-responsive • See FAWE analysis of completed EFA NAPS [ See booklet and Table]
Observation on gender and education policies. • Awareness and intention to address gender equity. • Mention of the causes of gender disparities • Gender addressed mainly in relation to access, not retention and performance. e.g no strategies on teenage pregnancy, early marriage, empowerment. • Best practices not sufficiently incorporated in education policies
Lessons from FAWE’s Efforts to Accelerate Girls’ Education Three areas • Mainstreaming gender in EFA NAPS • Demonstrating what works in improving access, retention and performance. • Networking to accelerate progress on girls education.
1. Mainstreaming gender in EFA NAPS It is a long complex process: • Collection of Education policies and plans • Development of a framework for analysis of education policies for gender. • Training of a core group at country level (MoE, FAWE, Gender) • Development of tool for gender mainstreaming in EFA Plans. • Training workshops on the use of the tool (FAWE, MoE, Gender) • Involvement of FAWE NC in EFA Processes. • Analysis of EFA Action Plans.
Mixed Results: • Some EFA Action plans have mainstreamed gender. • FAWE NCs are involved more in EFA processes (committees, task forces, teams etc) • Gender awareness not translating into gender mainstreaming. • Gender awareness not matched with technical skills for gender mainstreaming (MoE, donor agencies) • Gender not articulated in strategies, activities M&E and budgeting. • Resources not allocated to action on gender.
2. Replicating/Mainstreaming what works in improving access, retention and performance • There is a large pool of best/promising practices. • The best/promising practices not sufficiently mainstreamed. • More collaboration with MoE and communities needed. • Positive developments in mainstreaming/replicating what works
Examples from FAWE collaboration with MoE/Communities: Addressing poverty through bursaries • Government bursaries for girls (Gambia, Kenya, Tanzania) • Challenge: HIV/AIDS orphans
Addressing drop out due to teenage pregnancy: • Re-entry policy (Kenya, Ethiopia, Zambia, Guinea Uganda, Namibia, Ghana, Senegal etc) • Ongoing study FAWE/UNESCO on what has worked. • Challenge: to get more countries on board.
Combating early/forced Marriage • Communities taken up responsibility after sensitization ( e.g Kenya – Kajiado district) • Challenge: more collaboration with communities
Creating a conducive/gender responsive school environment: • FAWE working with seven MoE on pilot COEs (Senegal, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia, Gambia, Ethiopia) • Processes towards replication started in Senegal, and Kenya. • Challenge: to take pilots to scale
Promoting the participation of girls in SMT • Promising practices from FEMSA project in 11 countries • Processes for mainstreaming started in some countries [ eg Tanzania ] • Evaluation study ongoing to identify what works. • Challenge: more countries to replicate/mainstream what works.
Empowerment of girls • Promising practices from FAWE/government collaboration. • Replication of Speak out [TUSEME] – Tanzania, Rwanda, FAWE COE. • Replication of Girls’ clubs, guidance and counselling desks in schools. Challenge: Introduce empowerment in all schools Gender empowerment for boys
3. Networking to accelerate progress in girls’ education • Increased networking between government and civil society. • More quality networking required on the ground. • Gender experts with no expertise in policy/plans formulations. • Policy planning experts with no expertise on gender mainstreaming. • Presence of gender experts in policy/planning processes as tokenism. • Challenge: Quality Networking with practitioners on the ground.
Conclusion • More work pending for gender responsive education policies and plans.Technical capacity for gender mainstreaming within MOE crucial. • Deliberate/concerted effort needed to mainstream best practices. • More action on the ground i.e. school/community level.