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Brokers Awareness program

Brokers Awareness program

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Brokers Awareness program

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  1. Brokers Awareness program Dr. Mounther Barakat Securities and Commodities Authority

  2. برنامج توعية الوسطاء د. منذر بركات العمري هيئة الاوراق المالية والسلع

  3. Introductionمقدمة It has been noticed that traders and entry level brokers may be 1- from backgrounds other than finance, or 2- little finance background, or 3- of finance background that needs to be refreshed If you are none of the above, this is not for you

  4. What is this program about?ماذا يحوي برنامج توعية الوسطاء؟ • Introduction to the field of finance • Financial risk and return • Demand on financial assets • Structure of interest rates • Financial markets efficiency • Economic policies and the role of the central bank • Capital, money, commodity, derivatives, mortgage, foreign exchange markets • Organization of markets and its operations • Introduction to financial analysis • Conflict of interest and financial crises • Financial institutions: Investment companies, securities firms, banks, insurance companies, finance companies, pensions, ...

  5. What is Finance?تعريف صناعة وعلم التمويل • Finance deals with: efficient allocation of resources by using pricing systems that are based on the riskness of assets. • Three areas of finance: • Financial markets and Institutions – Intermediation • Corporate finance • Investments

  6. Definitions from Finance perspectiveتعريفات هامة • Asset • Real asset Vs. Financial asset • Primary asset Vs. Secondary asset • Intermediary Vs. broker Vs. dealer • Market • Financial market • Balance sheet • Income statement • Statement of cash flow • Cash Vs. profit • Surplus Vs. Deficit Units

  7. The financial Systemالنظام المالي • Types of financial Systems • Religious • Socialism • Capitalism • Mixed • The financial system in the UAE is the free market system with considerations specific to the UAE (e.g. Islamic and Arab culture, …)

  8. The financial systemمكونات النظام المالي • Participants • Governments • Businesses • Individuals • Foreigners • The financial sector • Financial markets • Financial institutions • Money and Interest rates

  9. The Financial Systemالنظام المالي Financial System I/M Fin. Sec. Participants - Interest rates - Money Supply - Financial Markets - Financial Institutions - Government. - Businesses - Individuals - Foreigners

  10. The Financial Sectorالقطاع المالي Financial Sector Financial Markets Financial Institutions Long Term Equity Debt Short Term Money FOREX Depositories Banks Credits Unions Non-depositories Investment Companies Securities firms Contractual financing

  11. Interest Rates and Money Supplyأسعار الفائدة والكتلة النقدية • Interest is the rent of money • Equal to the real growth rate of GDP plus the expected inflation rate plus a premium to compensate for the riskness of the company being analyzed. • Money supply is the amount of liquidity that is being allowed by the UAE central bank. The company being analyzed benefits if the amount of liquidity is near the healthy level. • Both interest rates and money supply have a great effect on the performance and value of the company and need to be taken into consideration in any financial analysis.

  12. Function of Financial Markets and Institutionsوظيفة الأسواق والمؤسسات المالية • Allows transfers of funds from person or business without investment opportunities (i.e., “Lender-Savers”) to one who has them (i.e., “Borrower-Spenders”) • تحويل الاموال ممن يملكونها الى من يحتاجونها • Improves economic efficiency • زيادة الفاعلية الاقتصادية

  13. Segments of Financial Markets • Direct Finance • Borrowers borrow directly from lenders in financial markets by selling financial instruments which are claims on the borrower’s future income or assets • التمويل المباشر • Indirect Finance • Borrowers borrow indirectly from lenders via financial intermediaries (established to source both loanable funds and loan opportunities) by issuing financial instruments which are claims on the borrower’s future income or assets • التمويل غير المباشر

  14. Importance of Financial Markets اهمية الاسواق المالية • Financial markets are critical for producing an efficient allocation of capital, which contributes to higher production and efficiency for the overall economy, as well as economic security for the citizenry as a whole • توزيع المصادر بفاعلية وإنتاجية عالية وأمان • Financial markets also improve the lot of individual participants by providing investment returns to lender-savers and profit and/or use opportunities to borrower-spenders • زيادة معدل العائد والربحية للجميع

  15. Function of Financial Markets رسم توضيحي لفكرة انتقال الاموال Flow of Funds Through the Financial System

  16. Classifications of Financial Marketsتصنيف الأسواق حسب الإصدار • Primary Market السوق الأولية • New security issues sold to initial buyers • Secondary Market السوق الثانوية • Securities previously issued are bought and sold

  17. Classifications of Financial Marketsتصنيف الأسواق حسب التنظيم • Exchanges الاسواق المنظمة (البورصات) • Trades conducted in central locations (e.g., ADSM, DFM, ….) • Over-the-Counter Markets الاسواق الغير منظمة • Dealers at different locations buy and sell

  18. Classifications of Financial Marketsتصنيف الأسواق حسب الاستحقاق • Long term (Capital Markets) • Debt • Equity • Short term (Money Markets) • Foreign Exchange • Money markets

  19. Classifications of Financial Markets تصنيف الأسواق المالية حسب نوعية الأصول • Debt Markets أسواق الدين • Short-Term (maturity < 1 year) Money Market • Long-Term (maturity > 1 year) Capital Market • Equity Markets أسواق الملكية • Common Stock

  20. Characteristics of Debt Markets Instrumentsأدوات الدين • Debt instruments صفات ادوات الدين • Buyers of debt instruments are suppliers (of capital) to the firm, not owners of the firm • Debt instruments have a finite life or maturity date • Advantage is that the debt instrument is a contractual promise to pay with legal rights to enforce repayment • Disadvantage is that return/profit is fixed or limited

  21. Characteristics of Equity Markets Instrumentsأدوات الملكية • Equity instruments (common stock is most prevalent equity instrument) صفات ادوات الملكية • Buyers of common stock are owners of the firm • Common stock has no finite life or maturity date • Advantage of common stock is potential high income since return is not fixed or limited • Disadvantage is that debt payments must be made before equity payments can be made

  22. Characteristics of Financial Marketsأسواق الدين • Debt Markets صفات اسواق الدين • Although less well-known by the average person, debt markets are much larger in total dollars than equity markets, due to greater number of participant classes (households, businesses, government, and foreigners) and size of individual participants (businesses, and government) • This is not the case in the UAE; debt market is mostly bank loans and informal or off balance sheet lending.

  23. Characteristics of Financial Marketsأسواق الملكية • Equity Markets صفات اسواق الملكية • Although newly founded and lacks the needed environment to function properly, it proved to have played its role in establishing the elements of the sovereignty of the country and in promoting economic development. • To the contrary of most economies including that of the US the equity market in UAE is larger than the debt market, due to the fact that the bond markets are small and illiquid.

  24. Function of FinancialIntermediariesدور الوساطة المالية • Financial Intermediaries الوسطاء الماليين • Engage in process of indirect finance • More important source of finance than securities markets • Needed because of transactions costs and asymmetric information

  25. Function of FinancialIntermediariesدور الوساطة المالية • Transactions Costs تكاليف التحويلات • Financial intermediaries make profits by reducing transactions costs • Reduce transactions costs by developing expertise and taking advantage of economies of scale and scope.

  26. Function of FinancialIntermediariesدور الوساطة المالية • A financial intermediary’s low transaction costs mean that it can provide its customers with liquidity services, services that make it easier for customers to conduct transactions توفير السيولة دون الحاجة الى انهاء المشروع الانتاجي • Banks provide depositors with checking accounts that enable them to pay their bills easily • Depositors can earn interest on checking and savings accounts and yet still convert them into goods and services whenever necessary without having to discontinue and liquidate investments

  27. Function of FinancialIntermediariesدور الوساطة المالية • Another benefit made possible by the FI’s low transaction costs is that they can help reduce the exposure of investors to risk, through a process known as risk sharing • ادارة المخاطر • FIs create and sell assets with lesser risk to one party in order to buy assets with greater risk from another party (e.g. banks) • This process is referred to as asset transformation, because in a sense risky assets are turned into safer assets for investors

  28. Function of FinancialIntermediariesدور الوساطة المالية • Adverse Selection الامتناع عن الاستثمار • Before transaction occurs • Potential borrowers most likely to produce adverse outcome are ones most likely to seek loan and be selected – brokers and financial analysts can prevent that by studying the credit worthiness of the borrowers

  29. Function of FinancialIntermediariesدور الوساطة المالية • Moral Hazard المخاطرة بأموال الغير • After transaction occurs • Hazard that borrower has incentives to engage in undesirable (immoral) activities making it more likely that won't pay loan back

  30. Function of FinancialIntermediariesدور الوساطة المالية • Financial intermediaries reduce adverse selection and moral hazard problems, enabling them to make profits. How they do this is covered in many of the topics to come. • المؤسسات المالية تقلل من هذه المخاطر

  31. Financial Institutionsانواع المؤسسات المالية • Depository Institutions (Banks) المؤسسات الإيداعية • Commercial banks • Savings & Loan Associations (S&Ls) • Mutual Savings Banks • Credit Unions • Contractual Savings Institutions المؤسسات التعاقدية • Life insurance companies • Property & casualty insurance companies • Pension funds

  32. Financial Institutions انواع المؤسسات المالية • Investment Intermediaries المؤسسات الاستثمارية • Finance companies • Mutual funds • Money market mutual funds

  33. Financial Institutions انواع المؤسسات المالية • Commercial banks البنوك التجارية • Raise funds primarily by issuing checkable, savings, and time deposits which are used to make commercial, consumer and mortgage loans • Collectively, these banks comprise the largest financial intermediary and have the most diversified asset portfolios • Around 1 trillion DHS in total assets in the UAE

  34. Financial Institutions انواع المؤسسات المالية • S&Ls, Mutual Savings Banks and Credit Unions • المؤسسات الادخارية ومؤسسات الاقراض الغير ربحية • Raise funds primarily by issuing savings, time, and checkable deposits which are most often used to make mortgage and consumer loans, with commercial loans also becoming more prevalent at S&Ls and Mutual Savings Banks • Mutual savings banks and credit unions issue deposits as shares and are owned collectively by their depositors, most of which at credit unions belong to a particular group, e.g., a company’s workers

  35. Financial Institutions انواع المؤسسات المالية • All CSIs acquire funds from clients at periodic intervals on a contractual basis and have fairly predictable future payout requirements. • Life Insurance Companiesشركات تأمين الحياة receive funds from policy premiums, can invest in less liquid corporate securities and mortgages, since actual benefit pay outs are close to those predicted by actuarial analysis • Fire and Casualty Insurance Companies شركات تأمين الاصابة receive funds from policy premiums, must invest most in liquid government and corporate securities, since loss events are harder to predict

  36. Financial Institutions انواع المؤسسات المالية • All CSIs acquire funds from clients at periodic intervals on a contractual basis and have fairly predictable future payout requirements. • Pension and Government Retirement Funds صناديق التقاعد hosted by corporations and state and local governments acquire funds through employee and employer payroll contributions, invest in corporate securities, and provide retirement income via annuities

  37. Financial Institutions انواع المؤسسات المالية • Finance Companiesشركات التمويل sell commercial paper (a short-term debt instrument) and issue bonds and stocks to raise funds to lend to consumers to buy durable goods, and to small businesses for operations • Mutual Funds صناديق الاستثمار acquire funds by selling shares to individual investors and use the proceeds to purchase large, diversified portfolios of stocks and bonds – we will have a training course on these some time this summer

  38. Financial Institutions انواع المؤسسات المالية • Money MarketMutual Funds صناديق الاستثمار بالأدوات قصيرة الامد acquire funds by selling checkable deposit-like shares to individual investors and use the proceeds to purchase highly liquid and safe short-term money market instruments Hedge Funds, ETFs and others

  39. Regulation of Financial Markets • Reasons for Regulation اسباب التشريع المالي • Increase Information to Investors • Protect investors and their investments • Ensure the Soundness of Financial Intermediaries • Improve Monetary Control

  40. Regulation Reason: Increase Investor Informationزيادة توفر المعلومات • Asymmetric information in financial markets means that investors may be subject to adverse selection and moral hazard problems that may hinder the efficient operation of financial markets and may also keep investors away from financial markets • The Securities and Commodities Authority (SCA) requires corporations issuing securities to disclose certain information about their sales, assets, and earnings to the public and restricts trading by the largest stockholders (known as insiders) in the corporation.

  41. Regulation Reason: Increase Investor Informationزيادة توفر المعلومات • Such government regulation can reduce adverse selection and moral hazard problems in financial markets and increase their efficiency by increasing the amount of information available to investors

  42. Regulation Reason: Ensure Soundness of Financial Intermediaries رُشْد الوسطاء • Because providers of funds to financial intermediaries may not be able to assess whether the institutions holding their funds are sound or not, if they have doubts about the overall health of financial intermediaries, they may want to pull their funds out of both sound and unsound institutions, with the possible outcome of a financial panic that produces large losses for the public and causes serious damage to the economy

  43. Regulation Reason: Ensure Soundness of Financial Intermediaries رُشْد الوسطاء • To protect the public and the economy from financial panics, six types of regulations are needed: • Restrictions on Entry - soundness • Disclosure – transparency • Restrictions on Assets and Activities – no dummies • Deposit Insurance – peace of mind • Limits on Competition – no price wars • Restrictions on Interest Rates – no usury

  44. Regulation: Restriction on Entry موانع الدخول • Restrictions on Entry • Very tight regulations as to who is allowed to set up a financial intermediary • Individuals or groups that want to establish a financial intermediary, such as a bank or an insurance company, must obtain a charter from the government • Only if they are upstanding citizens with impeccable credentials and a large amount of initial funds will they be given a charter.

  45. Regulation: Disclosure الافصاح • Disclosure Requirements • There are stringent reporting requirements for financial intermediaries • Their bookkeeping must follow certain strict principles, • Their books are subject to periodic inspection, • They must make certain information available to the public.

  46. Regulation: Restriction on Assets and Activities تحديد النشاطات • There are restrictions on what financial intermediaries are allowed to do and what assets they can hold • Before you put your funds into a bank or some other such institution, you would want to know that your funds are safe and that the bank or other financial intermediary will be able to meet its obligations to you

  47. Regulation: Restriction on Assets and Activities تحديد النشاطات • One way of doing this is to restrict the financial intermediary from engaging in certain risky activities • Another way is to restrict financial intermediaries from holding certain risky assets, or at least from holding a greater quantity of these risky assets than is prudent

  48. Regulation: Deposit Insuranceالتأمين • The government can insure people providing funds to a financial intermediary from any financial loss if the financial intermediary should fail

  49. Regulation: Past Limits on Competition حدود للتنافس • Although the evidence that unbridled competition among financial intermediaries promotes failures that will harm the public is extremely weak, the government needs to impose many restrictive regulations • The purpose is to prevent financial intermediaries from competing to the point where the integrity of the financial system is compromised.

  50. Regulation: Past Restrictions on Interest Rates حدود لأسعار الفائدة • Competition must also be inhibited by regulations that impose restrictions on interest rates that can be paid on deposits • These regulations need to be instituted because of the widespread belief that unrestricted interest-rate competition help encourage bank failures